The digital gallery

Featured Exhibits

Atlas to Marshall's Life of Washington
Atlas to Marshall's Life of Washington

An atlas made as a complement to the famous biography of George Washington, written by Supreme Court Justice John Marshall. From the collection of Jane and Ron Gibbs.

From Wikipedia: John Marshall (September 24, 1755 – July 6, 1835) was an American politician and lawyer who served as the fourth chief justice of the United States from 1801 until his death in 1835. Marshall remains the longest-serving chief justice and fourth-longest serving justice in Supreme Court history, and he is widely regarded as one of the most influential justices to ever sit on the Supreme Court. Prior to joining the Supreme Court (and for one month simultaneous to his tenure as Chief Justice), Marshall served as the fourth United States Secretary of State under President John Adams.

After his appointment to the Supreme Court, Marshall began working on a biography of George Washington. He did so at the request of his close friend, Associate Justice Bushrod Washington, who had inherited the papers of his uncle. Marshall's The Life of George Washington, the first biography about a U.S. president ever published, spanned five volumes and just under one thousand pages. The first two volumes, published in 1803, were poorly-received and seen by many as an attack on the Democratic-Republican Party.[119] Nonetheless, historians have often praised the accuracy and well-reasoned judgments of Marshall's biography, while noting his frequent paraphrases of published sources such as William Gordon's 1801 history of the Revolution and the British Annual Register.[120] After completing the revision to his biography of Washington, Marshall prepared an abridgment. In 1833 he wrote, "I have at length completed an abridgment of the Life of Washington for the use of schools. I have endeavored to compress it as much as possible. ... After striking out every thing which in my judgment could be properly excluded the volume will contain at least 400 pages."[121] The Abridgment was not published until 1838, three years after Marshall died.[122]

Levi Walter Yaggy - 1887 & 1893
Levi Walter Yaggy - 1887 & 1893

Welcome to The Digital Gallery’s exhibit on Levi Walter Yaggy, comprising 30+ images from the late 1800's used to teach kids about geography. When I first saw his maps and images, I imagined that the creator of these fantastic and creative images must have someone like van Gogh, Warhol or Basquiat, because of my notion of what is a creative personality. Well, it turns out, I was significantly wrong. Levi Walter Yaggy, was an entrepreneur, an investor, an inventor and a farmer. He was born in 1848, the tenth of eleven children. His main business was the Western Publishing House, a company he founded when he was 26 and which grew to have over one thousand employees. His inventiveness may explain why his maps and images have flaps, dials, sliders and other mechanical elements.

As a publisher, Yaggy’s company specialized in materials for teachers. His maps came in a kit and were each substantial in size, about 2 feet x 3 feet. Our Yaggy exhibit is composed of two sub-exhibits. The first, from 1893, has nine images that represent geographic terms and climate zones of the world, as well as a relief map of the United States. An unfortunate part of his work is the propagation of the racist idea that temperate zones and their people favor superior cultural development over tropical zones and their people. However, from an information design perspective, his maps and images are exquisitely done because they are "BAZIC" (see Google Slide below). They of their simplicity, their use of color and the overall engagement they foster.

Sources:* Boston Rare Maps* Open Culture article 2019* National Geographic 2018* Collossal 2019* Yaggy Obituary* Image of Yaggy and ancestry info* Yaggy Plantation for Sale 2016. Also here.* Books by L.W. Yaggy eBay* Google Slide document about Yaggy and "View of Nature in Ascending Regions". Also describes BAZIC criteria for judging quality of a map.

Star Atlas by Upton - 1896
Star Atlas by Upton - 1896

An atlas of stars made in 1896 by a famous astronomer who attended Brown University and was a founder of the Ladd Observatory.

From Wikipedia: Winslow Upton (October 12, 1853 – January 8, 1914) was an American astronomer.[1] He published extensively on the subject of meteorology.[2]

He received his undergraduate degree from Brown University and was valedictorian when he graduated in 1875.[1] Upton then worked as an assistant at Mitchel Observatory of the University of Cincinnati where he received his master's degree in 1877.[1] He later received an honorary doctorate from Brown in 1906.[3]

He became an assistant astronomer at the Harvard Observatory in 1877. During this time he wrote a parody of Gilbert and Sullivan's comic opera H.M.S. Pinafore titled Observatory Pinafore.[4] Then he became an assistant engineer for the U. S. Lake Survey from 1879. In 1880 he was a computer at the U.S. Naval Observatory. He was a computer and assistant professor at the U.S. Signal Service in 1881.[5][6] He was appointed professor and head of the department of astronomy at Brown in 1884.[3] He then became director of Ladd Observatory when it opened in 1891.[7] During his tenure Upton also served as secretary of the faculty and dean at Brown.[2]

He was a member of the U. S. government eclipse expeditions of 1878 and 1883, also of two private expeditions sent out in 1887 and 1889, and in 1896-97 was attached to the southern station of Harvard University at Arequipa, Peru.[8] His systematic research studying meteorology during solar eclipses has been described as "pioneering."[9]

He married Cornelia Augusta Babcock in 1882 and they had two children. Eleanor Stuart Upton was a librarian at the John Carter Brown Library and Yale University Library. Margaret Frances Upton taught bacteriology. She was also a lab technician and research assistant at hospitals.[10]

GLAM CMS Holiday Cocoa Event - December 4, 2021
GLAM CMS Holiday Cocoa Event - December 4, 2021

GLAM (Greater Los Angeles Mappers) and CMS (California Map Society) Holiday Cocoa Event 2021-12-04

Chat from event here

Summarized links:

Fred DeJarlais - mapping and genealogy in Minnesota family historyHennepin County Aerial Imagery Viewer Peter Hiller - AAA Indian Country Guide Map Emily Yang - Miniature Map Library Cinthia Eichhorn - Tribal Connections GIS MapArcGISLouise Ratliff - Western Association of Map Libraries Trish Caldwell - exhibit on Towns, Trains, and Terrain at Crocker in Sacramento Fred AudaRoll on 110th map - Fred Auda’s Navajoland map - David RumseyTim WeiskelAfrica Map Circle - digital resources"A Short Overview of Emerging Digital Technologies for Research & Teaching in African History & Cultural Studies,"Postelwayt map can be found here on The Digital Gallery Books being readMr. Selden’s Map of China - ThriftbooksSelden Map of China - Bodleian LibraryIn the Kingdom of Ice - Amazon (Tom Paper)A History of Tourism - Amazon (Therese Melbar)Big Transitions in Human History - envjusttv (Tim Weiskel)Len Rothman - 3D mapsraised relief maps hubbard - Sean Conway presentation to CMS on digital raised relief maps Join California Map Society
IMCoS Show and Tell 2 - November 30, 2021
IMCoS Show and Tell 2 - November 30, 2021

The eight-speaker event took place on Zoom on November 30th, 2021, at 6pm UK time.

IMCoS Event Page

Playlist of all videos here.


Chat from meeting here and below:

17:46:14 From maria rogante to Everyone:

good evening, i'm from Iyaly, absolutely excited to listen this conference

17:48:14 From Tom Paper to Everyone:

To see images for today's presentation, go to

17:59:16 From Ana Soto-Canino to Everyone:

Good day or evening to all. Ana here in the grey northeast coast, USA.

17:59:49 From Mike Sweeting to Everyone:

Hi Ana!

17:59:58 From Catherine NJ to Everyone:

9pm Kenya.

18:00:08 From Mike Sweeting to Everyone:

Hi Catherine!

18:00:28 From maria rogante to Everyone:

7 PM, Italy

18:00:37 From Mike Sweeting to Everyone:

Hello Maria!

18:01:03 From Stephen Nagler to Everyone:

Hello from sunny Knoxville, TN

18:01:12 From Mike Sweeting to Everyone:

Hi Stephen!

18:01:16 From Catherine NJ to Everyone:

Hi Mike!

18:01:29 From Stephen Nagler to Everyone:

Hi Mike!

18:01:42 From Carey Gordon to Everyone:

Hi from Florida, 1 pm here

18:02:05 From Mark Mavroudis to Everyone:

Hello from Cupertino, CA - 10am here

18:03:35 From Tom Paper to Everyone:

to see the slides for today's presentation, go to

18:09:05 From Mike Sweeting to Everyone:

Hi Mark M

18:09:16 From Mike Sweeting to Everyone:

Hi Carey

18:10:42 From Franca Tegliucci to Everyone:

Hi everyone from Rome. My name is Franca Tegliucci

18:10:57 From Katherine Parker to Everyone:

Hi Franca! Thanks for coming!

18:10:58 From Mike Sweeting to Everyone:

Hello Franca - Welcome!

18:12:48 From Flavio Ruzzene to Everyone:

Hi everyone from Veneto.Flavio

18:13:17 From Mike Sweeting to Everyone:

Hi Flavio. Hope it is warmer in the Veneto than in Northern England!

18:16:20 From Laurence Penney to Everyone:

Perhaps remind people where the raise hand icon is!

18:19:34 From Katherine Parker to Everyone:

Please feel free to place questions in the chat. We will ask them when either directly after the speaker finishes speaking or during the Q&A period at the end of the event.

18:27:26 From John Docktor to Everyone:

Is there anything on the verso?

18:31:11 From Ana Soto-Canino to Everyone:

Laurence, it would be an interesting project for a secondary school student to determine which graphic devices found in this artifact might still be found in current rail maps, say, even the London underground rail system, or the NYC subway. The exploration would deal with something thus: To what extent did these artifacts of the 1800s manage to “tool” our 20th century cartographic vocabulary for the display of railway lines.

18:31:58 From Laurence Penney to Everyone:

1859 Belgian railway map by Leloup: link to KBR digitization of one of their copies

18:34:24 From Mike Sweeting to Everyone:

Thanks Laurence

18:43:03 From Laurence Penney to Everyone:

French Wikipedia is very good on Philippe Vandermaelen and l’Établissement géographique de Bruxelles, who produced the Leloup map

18:48:54 From Andrew Kapochunas to Everyone:

Did Plato ever approach USPS about incorporating his system of addressing in rural areas?

18:50:03 From Stephen Nagler to Everyone:

Was either the clock or compass system copied by others later, and if so where else was it applied?

18:50:19 From Katherine Parker to Everyone:

Sorry, forgot to unmute 😆

18:51:09 From Laurence Penney to Everyone:

Do you think Plato was aware of the arrondissements of Paris, which are arranged in a spiral?

18:51:12 From Ana Soto-Canino to Everyone:

Mr. Hoffeld, thank you. Lovely chart. Just yesterday I learnt of Basil Brown’s endeavors regarding not just archaeological efforts in the late 1930s at Sutton Hoo, but also in gathering data for astronomical charts, and while also trying to make them accessible “to the common man” , as he once supposedly said. Your star chart came to me just in time to literally add color to my findings about B. Brown, all new to me.

18:52:17 From Mark Mavroudis to Everyone:

Hello everyone. I just wanted to say how much I am enjoying these fascinating presentations. Not a collector or researching - just someone who enjoys looking at maps.

18:52:42 From Katherine Parker to Everyone:

Thanks, Mark, we are glad you can be here.

18:52:46 From Ana Soto-Canino to Everyone:

Thank you folks! Lovely gathering. But not it’s the post-lunch-work hours here in NJ USA, so I must leave early. Thank you to all presenters for sharing!

18:53:05 From Tom Paper to Everyone:

Thanks you, Mark! Loved that map and the "system" of tracking...

18:53:16 From Catherine NJ to Everyone:

really loving it all. I just love maps 🙂

18:53:37 From Tom Paper to Everyone:

Laurence - a fascinating map, thank you for sharing...I will be exploring that map further...and also looking for a high res version

18:54:21 From Tom Paper to Everyone:

Peter - thank you for a great presentation...I wonder if eminent domain is displayed somehow in the map

18:54:46 From Tom Paper to Everyone:

Marc - thank you for a great presentation...colors are fantastic

18:54:49 From Laurence Penney to Everyone:

Thanks Ana! Indeed it would be really productive to see what students could do with the iconography and overall idea applied to modern data, maybe different modes of travel.

18:55:50 From Laurence Penney to Everyone:

Ana: Also worth noting is that the first general maps that included railways were the old plates re-engraved with the new lines, so they had to be distinct from roads, rivers & boundaries.

18:56:51 From Laurence Penney to Everyone:

Tom: good to hear, I’d love to hear what you discover, ponder or conclude!

19:03:23 From Franca Tegliucci to Everyone:

This is a real gorgeous map.

19:07:08 From Mark Rogers to Everyone:

Fantastic detail to this map :)

19:12:40 From LARRY ROBBINS to Everyone:

Greetings from Auckland New Zealand. Thanks for the opportunity today. Our day is just starting so with reluctance I must leave. I was IMCOS member for many years. Must rejoin! Thanks again.

19:12:59 From Mike Sweeting to Everyone:

Glad you can join us Larry!

19:22:21 From Katherine Parker to Everyone:

Please do post any questions you might have here in the chat.

19:31:31 From Mark Mavroudis to Everyone:

Thank you for sharing all the beautiful maps today.

19:37:06 From Flavio Ruzzene to Everyone:

Thak you !!!

19:37:45 From Flavio Ruzzene to Everyone:

Thank you !!!!!

19:45:54 From Carey Gordon to Everyone:

For Martin van Bauman: What resources do you use translate the place names from those on the map to modern names?

19:46:45 From Ramon Sieveking to Everyone:

My first virtual experience with IMCoS. It was very interesting. Thank you for sharing your maps with us. Greetings from Germany.

19:52:22 From Laurence Penney to Everyone:

For Katie: Could you comment on the production (or lack of it) of printed versions of this genre of military map?

19:52:56 From Sylvia Sumira to Everyone:


19:53:54 From Sylvia Sumira to Everyone:

Accidental symbol typo! Just like to say thank you to everyone for an interesting and varied evening .

19:55:26 From Katherine Parker to Everyone:

19:55:29 From Jay to Everyone:

How soon do we get to do this again?

19:56:20 From Katherine Parker to Everyone:

19:56:26 From Mark Monmonier to Everyone:

Thanks for organizing and orchestrating this session, Mike. Informative and enjoyable.

19:56:31 From Laurence Penney to Everyone:

Please feel free to contact me at about the Leloup Belgium map

19:56:41 From Franca Tegliucci to Everyone:

Thanks a lot for your very interesting conference. Thank you for sharing so many beautiful maps.

19:56:52 From Catherine NJ to Everyone:

thanks so much

19:56:54 From Laurence Penney to Everyone:

Thanks tons for organizing this, a fine evening.

19:56:57 From Mark Rogers to Everyone:

Great show and tell thank you :)

19:57:39 From Steve Belcher to Everyone:

Thanks everyone

19:57:50 From Emmie’s iPad to Everyone:

Thank you very much

19:57:54 From Stephen Nagler to Everyone:

Thanks very much to the speakers and organizers!

19:57:54 From Marc Hoffeld to Everyone:

Thank you !

19:58:19 From Mark Monmonier to Everyone:

Thanks, Tom.

19:58:40 From Flavio Ruzzene to Everyone:

Thanks so much

20:04:51 From Katherine Parker to Everyone:

I have to head off, have a great night everyone!

Maps for Tom Paper talk to ERTSF 28 June 2021
Maps for Tom Paper talk to ERTSF 28 June 2021

Antique maps & geospatial analytics. How I help companies make better decisions using lessons from history's greatest cartographers.

Link to video of talk (June 30, 2021)

Google Presentation Deck

Google Doc - Text of remarks

Presentation by Tom Paper to The Economic Roundtable of San Francisco on June 30, 2021.

Tom Paper is the Managing Partner of Webster Pacific and the Founder of The Digital Gallery. Tom is originally from Minnesota, one of four kids; he has three sisters and went to a summer camp in Northern Minnesota that led him on wilderness canoeing expeditions where he often was the navigator; he attended Williams College where he studied economics and environmental studies and then worked as a grain trader in South Dakota and a consultant with Bain & Company in Boston. He then attended the Graduate School of Business at Stanford, before joining his family’s business which makes bolts & forgings for the railroads of north america. He then became the CFO of a timber and lumber company and then was president of a coffee roasting business. In 2003, he established Webster Pacific, a ten-person consulting firm which helps companies make better decisions using data, analytics, geospatial analytics and a lot of common sense and little a bit of wisdom. Most importantly, he is married to Eleanor Bigelow, with whom he has raised two children. Tom lives in San Francisco in an 1887 Victorian, which, after his wife and children, has been the recipient of all of his earnings.

Panoramic Minnesota
Panoramic Minnesota

During the 19th and 20th centuries, cities’ local chambers of commerce and other civic organizations prepared and sponsored their own maps as ways to advertise the existing commercial activity. Pictorial maps are also known as "illustrated maps, panoramic maps, perspective maps, bird's-eye view maps, and geopictorial maps." This style of map commonly uses a 3-D perspective and heightened angle, typically not drawn to scale. Wikipedia

"Somewhat like the websites of their time, every town sought to have one [panoramic map] to remain competitive in attracting industry and the immigrant trade. Sometimes artistic exaggeration bordered on the fraudulent, as some travelers were drawn by images of idyllic, bustling towns with humming factories only to find a sad little bunch of mud-soaked shacks when they got there." Wikipedia

Five main artists/cartographers created over 55% of the Library of Congress’ panoramic map collection, likely due to the long process of creating each map. Artists would walk city streets, sketching notable trees, buildings, and landmarks, later combining the sketches and raising the visual angle to accurately depict the landscape.

Advancements in artistic technologies (lithography, engraving, etc.) allowed for expedited pictorial map recreation. Popular, and heavily detailed, city maps functioned in local homes as wall decor, promoting personal civic pride. Hosts were able to point out to visitors exactly where they lived, worked, and socialized, heightening the relationship between identity and locale. While production occurred throughout the country, the demand for city promotion was higher north of the Mason-Dixon line.

Many of these maps (both originals and modern recreations) are still popular today for their detail and visual appeal. Panoramic pictorial maps serve as the main way that the “vitality of America’s urban centers” was graphically documented.

For Minnesota specifically, these maps showcase the state's history and growth through mining, milling, timber, and railroads. Minnesota is also notorious for its plethora of lakes and associated recreational activities. The cities showcased in this exhibit represent the metropolitan growth of both Minnesota, and the Midwest as a whole.

Minnesota Wikipedia Page

Library of Congress, Panoramic Mapping

Jo Mora's Carte of Los Angeles - 1942
Jo Mora's Carte of Los Angeles - 1942

This exhibit has been created by Peter Hiller, Curator of The Jo Mora Trust and Nancy Grossman. Here by author and researcher Nancy W. Grossman shares with Digital Gallery viewers her introduction to Jo Mora as found in her book Jo Mora's Carte of Los Angeles: A Trail Guide published in December 2019.

Further in the digital exhibit, the dots found on the map correspond to a few of the sections in her book each of which articulates the significance of those vignettes found on Jo Mora's carte...

"Joseph Jacinto “Jo” Mora. How does one begin to summarize such an enormous life?

Jo Mora, Renaissance Man of the West, is the phrase I come upon most, that and Jo Mora, cowboy cartographer. This man is also a writer, a painter, illustrator and muralist, sculptor and photographer, and a cartoonist and comic artist, which will come as no surprise to fans of his cartes. He even designs a 1925 half dollar coin for the US Mint commemorating the state of California’s 75th anniversary.

During an insurgency in 1877, the Mora family flees Uruguay. Jo is a year old at the time; his brother Luis is three. They go first to Barcelona, finally arriving in the US in 1880, where they settle in the greater New York area. Both boys are already deep into the making of art; at the ages of eight and ten respectively, they consider creating a twenty- foot mural of the Iroquois Indian wars, though there’s no record of them actually doing so.

Their father Domingo is an accomplished sculptor. Jo and Luis attend primary school in Perth Amboy and grammar school in Allston, Massachusetts. At 15, Jo completes the Boston Latin School, and graduates from the Pingry Academy in Elizabeth, New Jersey in 1894. Both study sculpture under their father, who teaches art in Perth Amboy, Boston and New York City.

By 1895 Jo’s studying at the Art Students League, the Chase School of Art in New York and the Cowles Art School in Boston – and, at 19, has already produced poster murals for the Clermont Skating Rink in Brooklyn. Returning to Boston, Jo goes to work first for the Boston Traveler and then becomes a member of the Boston Herald art staff for the next four years, illustrating articles plus various books.

In 1903, he takes a trip west, working as a cowpuncher on a ranch in Solvang near the Mission Santa Ines, which inspires him to travel the entire Camino Real and sketch the Missions he saw. In 1904 he travels by mule-drawn wagon across Yosemite, Kings Canyon, Sequoia National Park and the Mojave Desert to Needles on his way to the Hopi mesas in Arizona. In Arizona, he is permitted to witness the Hopi Snake Dance, then sets to both photographing and producing detailed artwork of the ceremonies of the Hopi and Navaho tribes he’s gotten to know over two years of living among them.

Upon settling back in California he will marry Grace Needham, of San Jose, CA., at the Mission San Gabriel in 1907 and start to raise his soon to be born children Jo, Jr. and patty.

Mora publishes twelve of his iconic cartes over his lifetime. The first, Monterey Peninsula, his second, The 17 Mile Drive, and the first version of California all come out in 1927. San Diego appears in 1928. The three national parks, Yosemite, Yellowstone and Grand Canyon, all come out in 1931. Grace Line Fleet to the Old Spanish Main and Evolution of the Cowboy: Levi’s Round-Up of Cowboy Lore are published in 1933; the latter is a poster rather than a map, as is his Indians of North America in 1936. Carmel-by- the-Sea and Los Angeles are both issued in 1942. A second, smaller version of California will be his last, in 1945. An unfinished pencil rendering of a map of Catalina is found after his death.

But cartes are hardly all Jo Mora does. This man’s work is as varied as it is prolific. Starting out collaborating with his father, he finds himself working on huge architectural projects. In Los Angeles, at least four buildings include his work, including the Palace Theatre; he is assisting his father on four sculpted allegorical panels representing song, dance, music and drama when his father dies while this commission is still in progress. Mora completes it.

In San Jose, Mora creates two heroic male sphinx figures for the Scottish Rite Temple [today the San Jose Athletic Club], plus bas-reliefs over its entrance and throughout the building. He provides decorative elements for the Monterey County Courthouse, as well as numerous detailed panels for the King City High School auditorium. In Carmel, he sculpts Father Junipero Serra’s cenotaph, an altar and a cross.

He creates pediments and bas-relief panels for four buildings in San Francisco; his Miguel de Cervantes looks down on his Don Quixote and Sancho Panza in the Golden Gate Park. A marble bench with sculpted bears by Mora sits in front of the Sather Tower on the UC Berkeley campus. He creates the main entrance doorway and sculptures of bears to support fountains for the Union Wool Building in Boston. He designs a number of homes himself.

Architectural work is just one facet of Mora’s endless creativity. He designs everything from ordinary scale sculptures, many of cowboys breaking broncs, to “heroic” (larger than life) sculptures, to bronze plaques and vast murals. He creates fifteen or more dioramas, thirteen for the Will Rogers Memorial in Claremore, Oklahoma.

One diorama, exhibited at the California State Building at the 1939 Golden Gate International Exposition, is a one-hundred-foot-long depiction of the 1769 Portolá Expedition. Tragically, it is destroyed in a fire six months after the opening of the fair.

Mora illustrates countless books, both his own and for those of others. He designs bookends, trophies, coins and scrip certificates for use in Carmel during the Depression. He sculpts his son Jo Jr. at three years of age, reata in hand, breaking a hobby horse."

Nancy's book is an annotated look at all of the details seen on Jo Mora's carte of Los Angeles. To purchase the book: Grossman's emailPeter Hiller's email