The digital gallery

The Crusader Bible - 1240s

Image 1 of 86
E183.1r - The First Day, The Second Day, The Third Day, The Fourth Day

The First Day
It is the first day. Light is divided from the darkness. As a chorus of angels praises the Lord, Lucifer and the rebel angels are cast from Heaven. Immediately, the traitors assume the forms of hideous beasts. (Genesis 1:1–5)

The Second Day
On the second day, the Lord separates the sky from the water. Angels look down from heaven, praising the work. (Genesis 1:6–8)

The Third Day
On the third day, the Lord makes dry land appear. At His command, trees and vines spring forth. To the right, a corn crop grows. (Genesis 1:9–13)

The Fourth Day
On the fourth day, the Lord sets the stars, sun, and moon in the heavens to govern day and night, the seasons, and the years. (Genesis 1:14–19)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1952x2500px

Image ID: 4919

4919
Image 2 of 86
E183.1v - The Fifth Day, The Sixth Day, The Creation of Woman; The Tree of Knowledge, The Fall from Grace

The Fifth Day
On the fifth day, the Lord brings forth all of the creatures of the skies and seas. For the first time, birds take wing in the open firmament of the heavens, the waters teem with fish, and great whales roam the oceans. "Increase and multiply," the Lord commands, "fill the waters of the sea, and let the birds be multiplied upon the earth." (Genesis 1:20–23)

The Sixth Day
On the sixth day, the Lord forms man in his own image. As a sign of their special relationship, He grasps Adam's arm and, before the assembled creatures of the earth, charges him with dominion over the world and all of its inhabitants. (Genesis 1:24–31)

The Creation of Woman; The Tree of Knowledge
Soon after, the Lord puts Adam in Paradise and draws forth Eve from Adam's side. The pair are enjoined never to eat of the Tree of Knowledge. (Genesis 2:15–18, 21–23)

The Fall from Grace
A subtle, winged serpent with a woman's head convinces Eve to eat the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge. Adam accepts the forbidden fruit from his companion. (Genesis 3:1–6)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1934x2500px

Image ID: 4925

4925
Image 3 of 86
E183.2r - The Expulsion from Paradise, The Trials of Man and Woman, The Sacrifices of Cain and Abel; Cain Murders His Brother, The Death of Cain

The Expulsion from Paradise
The disobedient Adam and Eve are expelled from Paradise by the Lord. An angel brandishes a sword over the guilty pair, who now ashamedly hold fig leaves to conceal their nudity. The Gate of Paradise through which the couple exits is depicted as a slender Gothic tower. (Genesis 3:22–24)

The Trials of Man and Woman
After their exile from Eden, the Lord multiplies the sorrows of Adam and Eve. She shall suffer the pains of childbirth; he must cultivate the earth for his bread. As Eve sits spinning with a distaff, Adam digs with a spade. Their sons Cain and Abel collect firewood at their feet. (Genesis 3:16–19)

The Sacrifices of Cain and Abel; Cain Murders His Brother
The Lord is pleased with the ram Abel has brought as a sacrifice, but Cain meets with no such favor for the sheaves he presents at the altar. Furiously jealous, Cain later slays Abel with a hatchet. (Genesis 4:3–8)

The Death of Cain
This scene is drawn from an account popular in the middle ages that expanded upon the brief description of Cain's death in the Book of Genesis. The aged and blind Lamech, his aim guided by a boy, shoots Cain with bow and arrow as he is tangled in a bush. Note that in this and the preceding miniatures, the painter has deliberately ignored some of the plants springing from the ground, perhaps to create a contrast between the barren nature of the world and the lush Garden of Eden. (Genesis 4:15, 23–24)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1937x2500px

Image ID: 4927

4927
Image 4 of 86
E183.2v - Noah Builds an Ark, Searching for Dry Land, A Joyous Landing, A New Beginning

Noah Builds an Ark
The Lord is distraught at the wickedness of men and orders a great flood to eliminate them from the earth. Only Noah finds grace in the eyes of God. In obedience to the Lord, Noah builds an enormous ark for the salvation of his family and the world's creatures. (Genesis 6:13–17)

Searching for Dry Land
Once the storm calms, Noah releases a dove and a raven. The hungry raven is keen to feed on a floating corpse, but the dove soon returns from his survey bearing an olive branch, news of dry land. (Genesis 8:6–11)

A Joyous Landing
Soon the ark comes to rest on Mount Ararat, where Noah, his family, and the animals descend to land as the birds happily escape through the ship's open windows. (Genesis 8:18–19)

A New Beginning
Grateful, the family makes sacrifices to the Lord, and a new covenant is made: nevermore will the Lord curse the earth for the sake of the sinfulness of man. (Genesis 8:20–9:15)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1935x2500px

Image ID: 4928

4928
Image 5 of 86
E183.3r - Noah in His Cups, A Monumental Misunderstanding, The Greatest of Tests, Lot Taken Captive

A Monumental Misunderstanding
People of Babel plan to build an enormous city and a tower that will reach to heaven. The Lord is angered by their pride and confuses the speech of men so as to interrupt their plans. The project is abandoned, and the builders scatter to all regions of the earth. The miniature provides an excellent example of the medieval building process. Note the pulley system, driven by a man inside a wooden wheel that functions much like a treadmill. (Genesis 11:3–4)

The Greatest of Tests
The Lord has decided to test Abraham by ordering him to sacrifice his only son, Isaac. Before Abraham can carry out this order, an angel of the Lord catches the tip of his sword and instructs him to offer a ram in the boy's place. Isaac appears twice in this illustration in a gold tunic, carrying firewood for his own sacrifice and again on the altar. (Genesis 22:9–13)

Lot Taken Captive
The family of Abraham's nephew, Lot, become unfortunate captives in a war between enemy kings. Lot, his wife, and five soldiers are led away by the victors. They are preceded by two footmen who lead Lot's children away. (Genesis 14:8–12)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1943x2500px

Image ID: 4929

4929
Image 6 of 86
E183.3v - Abraham's Vengeance, A Blessing, The Corruption of the Sodomites

Abraham's Vengeance
Abraham has gained word of Lot's capture and arrives on horseback to free his nephew. His foot soldiers attack the enemy pavilion, chopping down the support poles and spearing an enemy soldier. The remaining foes hurry to arm themselves but it is too late; the horsemen pursue them into the pavilion and strike them down. (Genesis 14:14–15)

A Blessing
Having rescued Lot and his family, Abraham receives the blessing of Melchizedek, king of Salem and high priest. As Abraham kneels, Melchizedek, vested as a bishop, holds aloft bread and wine. The Christian illuminator understood these offerings as prefiguring the Eucharist. (Genesis 14:18–20)

The Corruption of the Sodomites
In Sodom, Lot offers hospitality to two angels of the Lord. Later, an angry mob confronts Lot at the door of his home, demanding the surrender of the guests. Rather than dishonor the Lord's ambassadors, Lot offers his daughters. Still indoors, the angels prepare to strike Lot's attackers with blindness. (Genesis 19:3–8)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1948x2500px

Image ID: 4930

4930
Image 7 of 86
E183.4r - Divine Judgment, A Father's Blessing, Isaac's Despair, A Marvelous Vision

Divine Judgment
The Lord detests the wickedness of Sodom and Gomorrah; the cities are toppled by a rain of brimstone and fire from heaven. Lot and his family are spared this fate, but Lot's wife, against the angels' command, turns for a final glimpse of her old home and is transformed into a pillar of salt. (Genesis 19:15–26)

A Father's Blessing
Before Isaac dies, he will bestow a blessing upon his elder son, Esau, making him master of his brothers. But Isaac's wife, Rebekah, would rather this favor fall to her younger son, Jacob. So, she dresses Jacob in Esau's clothes and sends him before his father with an offering. Isaac, whose eyesight is failing, is fooled and bestows the blessing on Jacob. (Genesis 27:15–25)

Isaac's Despair
Returning from his hunt, Esau presents his kill to the blind Isaac. Isaac laments, realizing that he has been duped by Jacob and that Esau must ever serve his younger brother. (Genesis 27:30–35)

A Marvelous Vision
On the way to Haran, Jacob falls asleep outdoors and has an amazing vision. A ladder ascends endlessly into a vault of sky. Angels ascend and descend its rungs, and the Lord Himself peers down from its heights to bestow a blessing upon Jacob and his children. Waking, Jacob builds an altar and pours an offering of oil, swearing to honor the Lord always. (Genesis 28:11–18)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1933x2500px

Image ID: 4931

4931
Image 8 of 86
E183.4v - A Bride Price, A Covenant, Wrestling the Almighty, All is Forgiven

A Bride Price
Jacob travels in search of his uncle, Laban. At Laban's well, Jacob meets his cousin Rachel, a shepherdess. Jacob removes the stone cover of the well, enabling Rachel to water her flock. Later, as Rachel and her elder sister Leah look on, Jacob petitions Laban for Rachel's hand in marriage. In return, Jacob swears to serve his uncle for seven years. (Genesis 29:10–20)

A Covenant
Laban, accompanied by his brothers, agrees to give both of his daughters to Jacob in marriage. Laban clasps his nephew's hands over a heap of stones that will serve both as witness to their covenant and boundary marker between their lands. Leah and Rachel observe them from a nearby tent. They are surrounded by their children and handmaidens. Rachel rocks Joseph, Jacob's youngest son, in his cradle. (Genesis 31:43–48)

Wrestling the Almighty
In the night, Jacob orders his family to cross the ford of Jabbok. When all have crossed but Jacob, an angel of the Lord appears and wrestles with him until sunrise. Jacob will not surrender and demands a blessing from his heaven-sent opponent. "Your name shall no longer be called Jacob, but Israel" the angel proclaims, "for you have struggled with God and with men, and have prevailed." (Genesis 32:22–31)

All is Forgiven
After many years, Jacob and Esau are reconciled to one another. At left, the family and servants of Jacob watch the reunion. At right, Esau's men regard the brothers' embrace. (Genesis 33:1–7)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1952x2500px

Image ID: 4932

4932
Image 9 of 86
E183.5r - Joseph, a favorite Son, Sold into Slavery, Bad Blood, False Accusations and Portents of the Future

Joseph, a favorite Son
Fulfilling the wishes of his father Jacob, Joseph brings bread and wine to his older brothers where they tend their flocks. But the brothers are jealous of Joseph and the favor Jacob has shown to him. He is brutally stripped of the coat his father gave him and lowered into a deep pit. (Genesis 37:12–24)

Sold into Slavery
The brothers return to the pit to sell Joseph into slavery, and he is taken to Egypt on a camel. (Genesis 37:25–28)

Bad Blood
The brothers have torn Joseph's coat and covered it in blood; a horrified Jacob is told that Joseph has been killed by a wild beast. (Genesis 37:31–34)

False Accusations and Portents of the Future
In Egypt, Joseph refuses the advances of his master's wife, who grasps his cloak as he flees. He is wrongly accused of adultery and put in prison, but his ability to interpret the dreams of his cell-mates will shortly result in his freedom. (Genesis 40:9–17)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1915x2500px

Image ID: 4933

4933
Image 10 of 86
E183.5v - Dreams of a King, Searching for Answers, Joseph Interprets Pharaoh's Dreams, A Powerful Post

Dreams of a King
In his dreams, Pharaoh sees seven fat cattle feeding by the water's edge. The same cattle are attacked and eaten by seven lean and sick cattle. Also, Pharaoh dreams of seven strong and healthy ears of corn, but these are devoured by seven thin and blasted ears of corn. (Genesis 41:1–7)

Searching for Answers
Pharaoh is worried by his dreams. What could these visions mean? To find the answer, he consults wise men from all over Egypt, but no one is able to grasp the significance of the dreams. (Genesis 41:8)

Joseph Interprets Pharaoh's Dreams
Pharaoh's chief butler remembers how Joseph interpreted dreams in prison. Joseph is summoned and explains the meaning of Pharaoh's dream: the Lord shall bring seven years of plenty to Egypt, but these will be followed by seven years of great famine and scarcity that will destroy the abundance. (Genesis 41:14–31)

A Powerful Post
Pharaoh is pleased with Joseph's wisdom and sets him the momentous task of preparing for the great famine. As symbols of his new authority, Joseph receives Pharaoh's own ring and a rich silk robe. Afterwards, the young Hebrew is placed in a royal chariot and hailed by the people as governor of all Egypt. (Genesis 41:41–43)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1974x2500px

Image ID: 4934

4934
Image 11 of 86
E183.6r - An Ironic Turn of Events, A Bounty, Tricks and Accusations

An Ironic Turn of Events
The great famine that Joseph predicted having arrived, the new governor oversees the sale and distribution of Egypt's vast stores of corn. Following Jacob's order, Joseph's brothers travel to Egypt to buy corn. They do not recognize Joseph's face in the stern gaze of the governor, who chooses not to reveal his identity. Joseph accuses them of spying and imprisons them. All are released save one, who will serve as hostage until the brothers return with Benjamin. Benjamin is Joseph's only full brother, born after his adventures in Egypt. Having learned of Benjamin, Joseph demands to see him. (Genesis 42:6–20)

A Bounty
In Canaan, Jacob reluctantly agrees to Joseph's command. The brothers depart at right, led by Benjamin on a camel, and carry rich presents for the governor. (Genesis 43:11–14)

Tricks and Accusations
Again Joseph tests his brothers. They are allowed to depart with grain, but, secretly, Joseph has ordered a golden cup to be placed in Benjamin's sack. At right, stewards catch up with the group and accuse them of thievery. Benjamin is pulled roughly before Joseph by a steward who displays the evidence. The frightened brothers fall to their knees and beg for the governor's mercy. (Genesis 44:4–17)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1923x2500px

Image ID: 4935

4935
Image 12 of 86
E183.6v - A Reunion, A Family Feast, Good News, A Blessing for Pharaoh

A Reunion
Joseph can no longer maintain the charade and confesses his identity. The brothers, struck with amazement and fear, are unable to speak. But Joseph is overcome with emotion; he weeps and embraces Benjamin. After many years, the brothers are reconciled. (Genesis 45:1–15)

A Family Feast
Joseph welcomes his brothers into his house and holds a feast for them at a rich table. (Genesis 43:31–34)

Good News
The brothers return to Jacob with amazing news. Joseph is alive and ruler of Egypt. This seems impossible! The brothers present their proof: wagon loads of presents Joseph has sent to his father. But the elderly Jacob is unconcerned with riches; all that matters is that Joseph still lives. (Genesis 45:21–28)

A Blessing for Pharaoh
Jacob and his sons arrive in Egypt with all that they possess, and Joseph happily presents his family to Pharaoh. Jacob kneels before the king and blesses him. "How old are you?" Pharaoh asks. "The days of my pilgrimage are a hundred and thirty years, few, and evil," Jacob humbly replies, "and they are not come up to the days of the pilgrimage of my fathers." (Genesis 47:1–10)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1960x2500px

Image ID: 4936

4936
Image 13 of 86
E183.7r - Blessings for the Future, Jacob's Last Words, Joseph's Last Prediction, Enslavement

Blessings for the Future
Jacob is sick and will soon die. Joseph is informed and brings his sons Manasseh and Ephraim to receive their grandfather's blessing. To Joseph's surprise, Jacob places his right hand on the head of the younger son, Ephraim, rewarding him the honor reserved for the eldest. Both shall be great, Jacob tells Joseph, but Ephraim's offspring will be a multitude among nations. (Genesis 48:13–20)

Jacob's Last Words
Jacob is on his deathbed. The brothers assemble to receive his final blessing. Jacob foretells the fate of each brother. Their destinies will determine the fate of the twelve tribes Israel. Jacob requests that his body be returned to Canaan to be buried with his forefathers, Abraham and Isaac. (Genesis 49:1–30)

Joseph's Last Prediction
Joseph is now a very old man. Before his death, he predicts how God will visit the Hebrews and send them out of Egypt. It is Joseph's wish that his body be removed from Egypt when that time arrives. In the meantime the brothers place Joseph's body in a sarcophagus. (Genesis 50:12–25)

Enslavement
A new pharaoh has risen to power and fears the numerous and prosperous Hebrews among his people. The Hebrews are enslaved and set to work on vast building projects. Pharaoh directs the oppression of the Jews, who are beaten by slave drivers even as they labor. In the bottom right foreground, a figure not unlike a medieval stonemason is struck on the back as he squares a stone; his partner busily works with hammer and chisel. (Exodus 1:8–11)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1983x2500px

Image ID: 4937

4937
Image 14 of 86
E183.7v - A Single Escapee, Moses, The Lord calls to Moses, The Deliverer

A Single Escapee
Pharaoh has ordered the slaughter of all male children born to the Hebrews. To save the life of her newborn son, a sorrowing mother has him placed in a basket made of bulrushes and set afloat in the river. (Exodus 2:1–3)

Moses
Pharaoh's daughter and her maids come down to the river to bathe. There they make a marvelous discovery: a Hebrew child afloat in a basket. The merciful princess spares the boy's life and turns him over to a nurse. He shall be called Moses, the princess decides, meaning "I drew him out of the water." (Exodus 2:5–10)

The Lord calls to Moses
Now a grown man, Moses has fled Pharaoh's wrath and lives in the desert among the Midianites. One morning, Moses is tending his father-in-law's flock at Horeb, the mountain of God, when he is witness to a miracle: a bush burns with fire but is not consumed. The Lord calls to the stunned Moses from the midst of the bush: "Take your sandals off your feet, for the place where you stand is holy ground." (Exodus 3:1–8)

The Deliverer
Following the Lord's commands, Moses has returned to Egypt to free the Hebrews. The Israelite elders are assembled before Moses and informed of the news. After years of oppression and slavery, the Lord has visited them, and will soon put an end to their affliction. The men understand the power Moses has been given, and fall to their knees in adoration of the deliverer. (Exodus 4:28–31)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1966x2500px

Image ID: 4938

4938
Image 15 of 86
E183.8r - Divine Demands, The Nile Turned to Blood, Amphibian Assault, Vermin

Divine Demands
The Lord has sent Moses and his brother Aaron to Pharaoh with demands. As a sign of his power, the Lord has transformed Aaron's staff into a winged serpent, but Pharaoh is unimpressed because his own magicians duplicate the feat. Unnoticed by the Egyptians, Aaron's winged serpent devours those of the magicians, foreshadowing the coming wrath of the Lord. (Exodus 7:10–13)

The Nile Turned to Blood
Pharaoh and his sorcerers look on in dismay as Aaron strikes the Nile with his staff, transforming the waters into blood and killing the fish. Pharaoh is still not swayed, however, as his magicians duplicate this feat with false magic. (Exodus 7:20–22)

Amphibian Assault
Again Moses and Aaron confront Pharaoh; this time, when Aaron strikes the waters, a gruesome plague of frogs overtakes the land. The magicians are able to duplicate the feat, but Pharaoh is now uneasy. The king pleads with the brothers to take away the frogs; in turn, he promises to release the Hebrews so that they might sacrifice to the Lord. (Exodus 8:6–8)

Vermin
Once again, God hardens the heart of the king of Egypt in order that He might work great wonders before men. Always the Lord observes from heaven as the instruments of His will, Moses and Aaron, perform miracles before Pharaoh. Now Aaron, instructed by Moses, strikes the dust with his staff and summons forth a plague of lice and flies. (Exodus 8:17–25)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1958x2500px

Image ID: 4939

4939
Image 16 of 86
E183.8v - The Egyptian Cattle Slain, Hail and Locusts, Passover, Deliverance

The Egyptian Cattle Slain
Pharaoh still refuses to release the Israelites. In turn, the Lord brings a great plague upon Egypt's livestock; although oxen, sheep, goats, and horses lie dead, not a single animal has died from among the Israelite flocks. (Exodus 9:1–7)

Hail and Locusts
Again the king stubbornly ignores Moses' predictions of the Lord's wrath. Now the whole of Egypt suffers as lightning strikes the earth and hailstones hurtle from the sky, crushing trees, man, and beast. What little plant life is left is consumed by a voracious plague of locusts. Still, Pharaoh refuses to let the Israelites leave. (Exodus 9:23–26, Exodus 10:12–19)

Passover
The Lord vows to afflict Egypt with a final, most terrible plague: at midnight, the Lord will enter the land to kill the first-born sons of man and beast. Moses explains the Lord's instructions to the Israelites: take a lamb, and with its blood mark the door of every home. Seeing this sign, the Lord will pass over you, and keep you safe. Accordingly, one of the Israelites paints a 't' cross above his door with a pen. At midnight, before the unmarked door of an Egyptian house, the Lord arrives in the form of an angel of Death and begins the slaughter. (Exodus 12: 21–29)

Deliverance
The Lord has slain all of Egypt's firstborn, from the son of Pharaoh to the first-born of cattle. The king, broken, summons Moses and Aaron. Gather your herds and all of your possessions, Pharaoh commands, and depart from Egypt forever. The Israelites depart bearing sacks of unleavened dough. Note that in this miniature a woman holds in her arms a child with a halo and that the people are preceded by a floating column. The child and column are creative allusions to the biblical text; the haloed child reflects the Lord's command to consecrate every first-born male, and the column is a literal interpretation of the pillar of fire that was provided by the Lord to guide the Israelites at night. (Exodus 12:37–13:21)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1934x2500px

Image ID: 4940

4940
Image 17 of 86
E183.9r - Divine Vengeance, A Joyful Celebration, Bitter Waters

Divine Vengeance
Pharaoh learns that the Israelites are lost in the wilderness and vows vengeance upon them. Egyptian war chariots corner the Israelites at the Red Sea, and the people are certain of their doom. But Moses, at the Lord's command, raises his hand above the waters and miraculously parts the sea. The Israelites flee over dry land to the opposite shore, the Egyptians in bold pursuit. Now Pharaoh and his army pay the ultimate price for this conceit: with all of the Israelites safely ashore, Moses strikes the sea a final time, and the waters envelop the enemy. (Exodus 14:21–30)

A Joyful Celebration
Miriam, prophetess and sister of Aaron and Moses, plays a timbrel as other women dance and rejoice. Seated before a tent, Moses and the Israelites look on and give thanks to the Lord. Notice how Miriam's gaze is directed toward the drowning horse and rider above, perhaps a literal reference to her words of praise: "Sing to the Lord, for He has triumphed gloriously! The horse and his rider He has thrown into the sea!" (Exodus 15:1–21)

Bitter Waters
In the wilderness, the bitter waters of Marah dismay the people, and the flocks thirst, but the Lord hears Moses' plea and reveals to him a tree that will sweeten the waters. (Exodus 15:22–24)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1948x2500px

Image ID: 4941

4941
Image 18 of 86
E183.9v - Sweetener, Manna, The Lord Provides, Joshua, a Soldier

Sweetener
Moses, following the Lord's command, casts the tree into the bitter waters. The Israelites gather around with drinking cups and vessels to collect the sweetened waters. In the foreground, a group of sheep quenches its thirst. (Exodus 15:24–25)

Manna
Hunger has overcome the Israelites in the wilderness, and the congregation begins to murmur against Moses. The Lord hears these complaints, however, and rains bread from heaven upon the people. The Israelites collect the bread, each according to his own need, following the instructions Lord has given to Moses. (Exodus 16:11–15)

The Lord Provides
Once more the Israelites complain to Moses of thirst, but again the Lord provides. Moses, in obedience to God, strikes the rock at Horeb with his staff, and a spring bursts forth to quench the thirst of the people and their flocks. (Exodus 17:3–6)

Joshua, a Soldier
Amalek and his army threaten the Israelites with war. Moses commands Joshua, son of Nun, to assemble an army. The opponents face each other across a field at Rephidim, in this illustration arrayed in thirteenth-century battle dress. Joshua wears a brown tunic and carries a tri-point shield emblazoned with a lion. He and his cavalry all wear great helms. The enemy horsemen, to include the crowned Amalek, wear an older style of pointed helmet with a nasal guard. In the foreground, trumpeters and drummers sound the call to battle. (Exodus 17:8–13)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1943x2500px

Image ID: 4942

4942
Image 19 of 86
E183.10r - Joshua Defeated at Ai, A Costly Transgression Revealed, Achan Stoned

Joshua Defeated at Ai
This is the first of the Picture Bible's great battle scenes. Joshua has taken a small contingent of the army to destroy the Amorite city of Ai. As soon as the Israelites arrive at the city gates, they are repulsed by a small force of defenders, including a crossbowman who takes aim from atop the portcullis. Thirty-six men of the expedition are killed as Amorite horsemen vengefully pursue and strike down their assailants. Joshua, shown again in brown tunic and with tri-point shield, narrowly escapes with his life. Nearby, an Amorite breaks his spear in the side of an Israelite horseman whose mount has collapsed beneath him, and a disoriented Israelite foot soldier is trampled by the fleeing cavalry. (Joshua 7:1–5)

A Costly Transgression Revealed
Confused and aggrieved by the defeat at Ai, Joshua prostrates himself before the Ark of the Covenant (depicted here as a rich reliquary chest) and begs for an explanation. It is discovered that Achan, a man of the tribe of Judah, took forbidden spoil from the accursed town of Jericho. Later Achan confesses the sin to Joshua; he and his family show Joshua a bar of gold (here painted silver), a rich garment, and two hundred shekels. The Lord points accusingly at the greedy family from the heavens. To appease Him, they must be destroyed. (Joshua 7:19–23)

Achan Stoned
Although Joshua appears loathe to do so, he orders the stoning of Achan, his entire family, and his cattle. Later, the Israelites will destroy Achan's thatched dwelling; all the possessions of the transgressor must be done away with in order to appease the Lord. (Joshua 7:24–25)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1941x2500px

Image ID: 4943

4943
Image 20 of 86
E183.10v - Victory at Ai, A Treaty

Victory at Ai
A furious slaughter ensues as Joshua leads the Israelites once more against the city of Ai. Astride a bay horse fitted out with white trappings, Joshua deals a terrible blow with his two-handed glaive (a type of broadsword), splitting an opponent at the waist and spilling his entrails. The despairing defenders flee toward the besieged city, but they are clearly lost: above them, the king of Ai is suspended from a war engine. Meanwhile Israelite foot soldiers attack with crossbows and ladders at the city gate. (Joshua 8:18–29)

A Treaty
The Gibeonites are not eager to meet the same fate as their Amorite neighbors. Posing as vagabonds, they appeal to Joshua for mercy, and he makes a treaty with the Israelites. (Joshua 9: 3–15)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1946x2500px

Image ID: 4944

4944
Image 21 of 86
E183.11r - The Longest Day, Israel's Enemies Humiliated

The Longest Day
Joshua and his army depart to defend the city of Gibeon, now under siege by the Amorite kings. Joshua is twice shown in this illustration; in the center, he rides through a city gate and spears an enemy king. Behind this group he appears again, imperiously commanding the sun and moon to remain motionless in the sky. As daylight is prolonged, the Israelites have ample time to revenge themselves upon their enemies. To the right, the other Amorite kings flee their attackers. (Joshua 10:6–13)

Israel's Enemies Humiliated
Joshua soon learns that his enemies are hiding in a cave at Makkedah. Israelite men drag the five kings from their hiding place, and, in obedience to Joshua, they trample on the kings' necks. Joshua, still holding his spear, encourages the men, reminding them that a similar fate awaits all those who oppose the Lord. (Joshua 10:15–25)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1932x2500px

Image ID: 4945

4945
Image 22 of 86
E183.11v - An Execution, Joshua's Final Commands, Joshua's Passing

An Execution
After their humiliation, the five Amorite kings are hanged for a full day. Come evening, Joshua orders a soldier to take the bodies down. (Joshua 10:26–27)

Joshua's Final Commands
Years later, before his own death, an elderly Joshua exhorts the leaders of Israel to remember the many blessings of the Lord and to obey the law of Moses. (Joshua 23:1–14)

Joshua's Passing
Beside Joshua's deathbed, the people grieve and mourn the passing of their great leader. (Joshua 24:29–31)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1963x2500px

Image ID: 4946

4946
Image 23 of 86
E183.12r - Ehud, a Clever Leader, Deborah, a Prophetess

Ehud, a Clever Leader
After the death of Joshua, Israel falls into sin and displeases the Lord; as punishment, the people are made subservient to Eglon, king of the Moabites, for eighteen years. The people repent and plead with the Lord for a deliverer. The Lord chooses Ehud of the tribe of Benjamin. When the Moabite army departs to fight a foreign battle, clever Ehud gains a private audience with Eglon and brutally slays the king. Ehud escapes and summons the Israelite army with a trumpet. The Moabites are humbled. (Judges 3:20–30)

Deborah, a Prophetess
Following Ehud's death, the sins of the Israelites again displease the Lord. The people are made to suffer under the rule of Jabin, king of the Canaanites, for twenty years. Finally, the prophetess Deborah summons Barak to lead an attack against the Canaanite army. Deborah, riding side-saddle on a dappled charger, commands Barak and the Israelite forces. The exhausted and terror-stricken enemy offers no resistance even as its king receives his death blow. (Judges 4:8–16)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1943x2500px

Image ID: 4947

4947
Image 24 of 86
E183.12v - Jael, a Heroine, Gideon, Most Valiant of Men, A Sacrifice and a Sign

Jael, a Heroine
Sisera, captain of the Canaanite army, has escaped the vengeance of the Israelites. He arrives at the tent of Jael, wife of Heber the Kenite, a former ally of his king, Jabin. The thirsty Sisera is given milk to drink and promised protection from his pursuers. As he sleeps, Jael quietly approaches with a hammer and a nail from the tent. Softly, she places the nail on Sisera's forehead and then, strikes. Instantly, he passes from deep sleep to death. In a little while Barak arrives, searching for his enemy, only to discover that Jael has already dealt with this opponent. (Judges 4:17–22)

Gideon, Most Valiant of Men
The Lord again sees fit to punish the children of Israel, for they have set up wooden images to honor the false deity Baal. For seven years, the people suffer the assaults of the Midianites, who rob them of all produce and livestock. Gideon, an Israelite farmer, is threshing wheat when the angel of the Lord calls to him, charging him to deliver Israel from bondage. Gideon and his companions are here dressed as medieval field workers; their flails and rakes imitate contemporary tools. (Judges 6:11–21)

A Sacrifice and a Sign
Gideon requests a sign from the angel of the Lord, confirmation that he has found favor in His sight. As a companion shakes corn in a winnowing-fan, Gideon offers a sacrifice of lamb and broth to the Lord. The angel touches this offering with his staff, and it bursts into flames, assuring Gideon of the Lord's favor. (Judges 6:11–21)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1930x2500px

Image ID: 4948

4948
Image 25 of 86
E183.13r - Baal's Altar Destroyed, The Sign of the Fleece, Gideon's Valiant Three Hundred

Baal's Altar Destroyed
At night, Gideon and his companions arrive at the altar of Baal that was erected by Gideon's father. The men smash the idols of the false deity to pieces with clubs, in accordance with the Lord's wishes. In its place, a new altar will be consecrated to the Lord. (Judges 6:25–27)

The Sign of the Fleece
Again, Gideon asks the Lord for a sign to confirm that he shall deliver Israel. He leaves a wool fleece on the floor overnight. If in the morning there is dew on the fleece only, and the ground is dry, he will know that he has the Lord's favor. Indeed, come morning, the fleece alone is wet with dew, as Gideon requested. He wrings the dew from the fleece and collects it in a vessel. With a golden trumpet, Gideon calls messengers and charges them to assemble an army. (Judges 6:34–38)

Gideon's Valiant Three Hundred
Thousands arrive to follow Gideon, but the Lord, as a sign of his might, promises Gideon that only three hundred will be necessary to defeat Midian. Each man is given a trumpet and a lantern. At nightfall, the three hundred surround the enemy encampment, sound the trumpets, hold aloft the lanterns, and cry aloud: "The Sword of the Lord and of Gideon!" The terrifying spectacle causes chaos in the Midian camp; the Midianite soldiers flee the Israelite cavalry and confusedly strike each other down. (Judges 7:16–23)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1935x2500px

Image ID: 4949

4949
Image 26 of 86
E183.13v - Jephthah's Despair, Mourning in the Mountains, Victory's Awful Price, A Treacherous Ascent

Jephthah's Despair
Once more, the Israelites have forgotten the blessings of the Lord and turned to the worship of idols. The people are sold into the hands of the Philistines and the Amorites and remain enslaved for eighteen years. Jephthah, the son of Gilead, is selected by the elders to lead the people out of bondage. If the Lord will bring him victory over Ammon, Jephthah vows, he will offer as sacrifice the first to come forth from his house upon his return. After the victory, he returns home, only to be greeted by his daughter, who merrily plays a timbrel. (Judges 11:30–35)

Mourning in the Mountains
Although filled with dread and sorrow, Jephthah's daughter accepts the vow her father has made to the Lord. She requests only that she and several companions might be granted two months to lament in the mountains. (Judges 11:36–38)

Victory's Awful Price
Two months have passed, and Jephthah's daughter bravely returns so that her father might fulfill his vow. Before a group of grieving women and an altar, Jephthah prepares to sever the neck of his daughter, whose wrists have been bound. (Judges 11:39–40)

A Treacherous Ascent
Abimelech, one of Gideon's sons, desires to lead the children of Israel, but must contend with his seventy brothers, all equally entitled to Gideon's legacy. Abimelech is not a patient man; he hires a band of vagabonds and mercenaries and slays his brothers. As Abimelech severs the head of one brother, his companions attack the others. One of the mercenaries holds a gruesome trophy in one hand and a bloodied sword in the other. (Judges 9:3–6)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1926x2500px

Image ID: 4950

4950
Image 27 of 86
E183.14r - Just Desserts, Divine Favor, A Thanksgiving, Samson, Mightiest of Men

Just Desserts
Abimelech has ruled Israel for three years, but the Lord does not favor this usurper. From atop the besieged stronghold of Thebez, a woman takes aim at Abimelech with a piece of a millstone. The stone dashes against his head, crushing his skull. With his remaining strength, Abimelech summons his armor bearer, begging that he be slain by a sword so that men will not say that he was killed by a woman. Abimelech appears twice—once beneath the millstone and once beneath the sword—but in different clothing. The reason for this inconsistency in a single miniature is unclear. (Judges 9:50–54)

Divine Favor
The Israelites are sinful in the eyes of the Lord and must serve the Philistines for forty years. But again, the Lord prepares a deliverer. An angel of the Lord visits Manoah, of the tribe of Dan, and his barren wife (In the biblical account, Manoah is not present). The angel promises that Manoah's wife will conceive and bear a son. She is to partake neither of wine nor of strong drink during the pregnancy, for the boy is to be a Nazirite, that is, a consecrated one. Most importantly, a razor is never to touch one hair of the boy's head. (Judges 13:2–5)

A Thanksgiving
Manoah invites the Lord's angel to dine, but the angel would rather Manoah make a burnt offering to the Lord. Accordingly Manoah chooses a kid from the flocks and prepares it on an altar. As Manoah pours an offering of oil and his wife feeds the fire, the angel ascends to heaven in the midst of the rising flames. (Judges 13:15–20)

Samson, Mightiest of Men
As the Lord promised, Manoah's wife conceives a boy, Samson. When he comes of age, his parents accompany him to Timnah to choose a wife. On the way, the family is surprised by a vicious, raging lion. The spirit of the Lord comes upon the young Samson. Samson steals away from his parents and, without their knowledge, rips the lion to pieces with his hands alone. (Judges 14:5–6)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1929x2500px

Image ID: 4951

4951
Image 28 of 86
E183.14v - The Philistines Outfoxed, Samson's Surrender, One against a Thousand

The Philistines Outfoxed
When Samson returns to his Philistine wife, he finds that her father has treacherously given her to another. Enraged, Samson devises a scheme to punish the Philistines. He catches three hundred foxes, ties their tails together, and fastens torches between them. The foxes are released into the Philistine fields, burning the corn, vineyards, and olive groves. (Judges 15:1–5)

Samson's Surrender
The men of Judah want no quarrel with their angry Philistine masters, who have come in search of the culprit responsible for the crop fires. Samson, wishing no further harm upon his people, allows himself to be bound for delivery to the Philistines. (Judges 15:10–13)

One against a Thousand
Samson's opponents will not have satisfaction. No sooner does the vengeful Philistine mob approach him than the spirit of the Lord comes upon Samson. He reaches for anything that might serve as a weapon and finds the jawbone of an ass. With this unlikely weapon, he slays a thousand of his enemies. (Judges 15:14–16)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1942x2500px

Image ID: 4952

4952
Image 29 of 86
E183.15r - Parched, The Gates of Gaza, Shear Betrayal, Samson Blinded

Parched
Weary from the slaughter, Samson discards the jawbone and asks God for water to quench his thirst. The Lord hears, and a miraculous spring wells up from the ground. (Judges 15:17–19)

The Gates of Gaza
Later, Samson arrives in Gaza, where vigilant Philistines prepare an ambush for him at the city gates. But before the trap is sprung, the cunning Samson wrests the very doors from the gates and defiantly carries them to the top of a high hill. (Judges 16:1–3)

Shear Betrayal
In the Valley of Sorek, Samson falls in love with the beautiful Delilah. Unbeknownst to him, Delilah is in league with the Philistines. Her persistent inquiries finally pay off, and Samson reveals to her the source of his superhuman strength—his hair. Indeed, a razor has never touched his head. When Samson falls asleep with his head on Delilah's knees, she quietly cuts his locks. Presently, her Philistine allies will capture him. (Judges 16:17–19)

Samson Blinded
The Philistines bring the helpless Samson back to Gaza. Still wary of their captive, they bind him in the presence of several armed men and gouge out his eyes. (Judges 16:20–21)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1924x2500px

Image ID: 4953

4953
Image 30 of 86
E183.15v - Samson in Prison, Retribution, Moving Day, A Kindly Host

Samson in Prison
Blind and shorn, Samson is led by his captors to prison, where he is forced to grind corn. Around his neck he wears a golden prisoner's collar inscribed with an 'S' and attached to a chain. (Judges 16:21)

Retribution
The Philistine princes gather to sacrifice to their god Dagon and to celebrate the capture of their greatest enemy. In the meantime, the hair on Samson's head has grown. He is brought to the temple to suffer the taunts and insults of his captors. Strengthened by the Lord, Samson crushes a pillar of the temple, causing the whole building to collapse. In death, Samson is avenged more than a thousand fold. (Judges 16:23–30)

Moving Day
The tribe of Dan, never having received its rightful inheritance, has gone in search of land to call its own. They choose Laish, a quiet and undefended city, and take it by force. Members of the tribe, baggage in tow, look on as soldiers set Laish on fire and put its inhabitants to the sword. The city is to be rebuilt and called Dan, after the tribe's ancestor. (Judges 18:27–29)

A Kindly Host
After fetching his disobedient wife from her father's house in Bethlehem, a Levite man is returning to his home in the remote mountains of Ephraim. In the Benjamite city of Gibeah an old man offers the travelers shelter in his own home. The Levite, his wife, and her maidservant all carry pilgrim's wallets and staffs. (Judges 19:17–20)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1948x2500px

Image ID: 4954

4954
Image 31 of 86
E183.16r - Hospitality, Reprehensible Demands, Gibeah's Crime, Death of the Levite's Wife

Hospitality
After seeing to the Levite's donkeys, the old man and his daughter prepare a feast for their guests at a table set with golden dishes. In the foreground, a servant cuts bread. (Judges 19:21)

Reprehensible Demands
While the Levite and his wife are at table, their host is called away to his door. Men of Gibeah demand that the old man surrender the Levite so that they might rape and murder him. Rather than suffer this fate, the Levite turns over his wife so that they might use her in his stead. (Judges 19:22–24)

Gibeah's Crime
The rapists deal wickedly with the Levite's wife. (Judges 19:25)

Death of the Levite's Wife
With her remaining strength, the Levite's wife crawls to the door of the house where her husband is lodged. In the morning, the Levite and his host discover her unconscious on the threshold. (Judges 19:25–27)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1917x2500px

Image ID: 4955

4955
Image 32 of 86
E183.16v - A Sorrowful Homecoming, A Grisly Message, Civil War

A Sorrowful Homecoming
The Levite throws his wife's body over an ass and, striking the animal with a whip, begins the journey home. Men gather round to express their sympathy and outrage at the behavior of the Benjamites. (Judges 19:28)

A Grisly Message
Upon his return to Ephraim, the Levite dismembers the corpse of his wife. Her body is to be cut into twelve parts and carried by messengers to all the territories of Israel. The outrage among the tribes over this egregious crime will begin a great war. (Judges 19:29)

Civil War
Four hundred thousand Israelite men have sworn vengeance against their brethren from the tribe of Benjamin because of the outrage committed against the Levite's wife. For three days a battle rages around the city of Gibeah. On the third day, the opposing tribes spring a successful ambush and slay over twenty five thousand of the Benjamites. As the victorious cavalry kill fleeing horsemen, foot soldiers deal harshly with men attempting to escape to the city. The victors capture the battlements and begin the destruction of Gibeah. (Judges 20:29–35)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1949x2500px

Image ID: 4956

4956
Image 33 of 86
E183.17r - Wives for the Benjamites, Ruth, a Loyal Daughter

Wives for the Benjamites
Before the war, the gathered tribes took an oath, swearing that none among them would ever again provide a wife to a Benjamite. Now, however, the tribes lament the loss of their brethren and ponder how they might find wives for those few hundred Benjamite men that survive. A remedy is devised by the tribal elders. The Benjamites are directed to Shiloh, where a festival is underway. Maidens in trailing skirts dance as minstrels play the viol, pipe, and tabor. The Benjamites, hidden in the vineyards, spring forth and take the young women. As they depart, they encourage the men of Shiloh not to fear for the integrity of their oath, for indeed they never gave their daughters willingly. (Judges 21: 20–23)

Ruth, a Loyal Daughter
Naomi, a widow, bids farewell to her daughters-in-law, who have also lost their husbands. One daughter-in-law, Ruth, refuses to remain in her native Moab and insists upon accompanying Naomi to Bethlehem. At the gates of Bethlehem, three women advance and joyously welcome Naomi home. "Do not call me Naomi; call me Mara," she tells them. 'Mara' is Hebrew for "the Almighty has dealt very bitterly with me." (Ruth 1:14–20)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1928x2500px

Image ID: 4957

4957
Image 34 of 86
E183.17v - Ruth Meets Boaz, Ruth Eats with Boaz and the Workmen, Stacking Barley

Ruth Meets Boaz
Boaz, a wealthy kinsman of Ruth's deceased father-in-law, rides forth to survey his fields. He asks his foreman about Ruth and learns that she is the Moabitess who returned with Naomi. Impressed by Ruth's hard work and loyalty to Naomi, Boaz promises her his protection. At right, he addresses his workmen. A field hand directs a worker who carries two sheaves on his back. Three reapers busily cut the grain, followed by Ruth and another young woman, who gather the grain. (Ruth 2:4–9)

Ruth Eats with Boaz and the Workmen
At mealtime, Ruth is invited to eat with Boaz, the foremen, and the field workers. The company spreads a cloth over their knees and dips bread into a bowl of vinegar supported on a golden vessel. (Ruth 2:14)

Stacking Barley
At the end of the day, Boaz's field hands bind and expertly stack the sheaves of wheat in the barns. The stories depicted on this folio provide exemplary pictorial information about daily agricultural practice in the thirteenth century. (Ruth 2:23)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1947x2500px

Image ID: 4958

4958
Image 35 of 86
E183.18r - A Successful Day, Naomi's Counsel, Boaz Compromised

A Successful Day
Ruth threshes the gleanings that Boaz gave to her, collects them in her skirt, and brings them home to Naomi. In this illustration Ruth carries an empty sack on her head. Naomi, seated in an archway before her house, inquires as to where Ruth found work. Naomi is pleased to learn that Boaz, her kinsman, has taken Ruth under his wing. (Ruth 2:17–19)

Naomi's Counsel
Naomi conceives of a plan to win Boaz as a husband for her daughter-in-law. This evening, Boaz will sift barley on the threshing floor. Therefore, she advises Ruth, wait until after the work is over and Boaz has gone to sleep, then lay down at his feet. Ruth, obedient, replies, "All that you say to me I shall do." (Ruth 3:1–5)

Boaz Compromised
As Boaz's men continue threshing the barley, their master has found a comfortable place to sleep among the stacks of sheaves. Ruth, unnoticed by a man sifting barley, quietly creeps under a fold of Boaz's mantle. (Ruth 3:7)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1939x2500px

Image ID: 4959

4959
Image 36 of 86
E183.18v - Boaz Must Send Ruth away, A Settlement

Boaz Must Send Ruth Away
Boaz cannot marry Ruth in good faith while another kinsman, a closer relation of her mother-in-law's, has legal rights to Naomi's property. In the meantime, Boaz gives Ruth six measures of barley, which she brings home to her mother-in-law. Naomi advises Ruth to be patient and await the outcome. (Ruth 3:14–18)

A Settlement
Boaz speaks with his kinsman and six elders concerning the matter of Naomi's property and Ruth. If the kinsman purchases the property, he must take Ruth to wife. Realizing that such a union would disinherit the rest of his family, the kinsman yields his privilege to Boaz. Following tradition, the kinsman removes his shoe before the assembly, a signal that he has officially relinquished his right. Boaz and the elders, all richly appareled, wear conical Jewish caps. (Ruth 4:3–8)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1928x2500px

Image ID: 4960

4960
Image 37 of 86
E183.19r - A Happy Ending, Journey to Shiloh

A Happy Ending
Boaz has married Ruth, and she has given birth to a son. Here, Ruth sits up in bed and gestures to the doting Naomi, who holds her grandson to her cheek. At the right, women of Bethlehem praise the Lord for providing the family with a successor. Also, they give thanks for Ruth, who has loved Naomi better than seven sons. Obed, Ruth's son, will become the father of Jesse, who will become the father of David, slayer of Goliath. (Ruth 4:13–17)

Journey to Shiloh
The family of Elkanah has traveled to Shiloh to give thanks to the Lord. Elkanah kneels before the temple entrance with a lamb; the two sons of Eli, the high priest, accept the offering. Atop the draped altar is a golden reliquary chest, a Gothic painter's interpretation of the Ark of the Covenant. Elkanah is followed by his two wives: Peninnah, who has many children, and the sorrowful Hannah, who has none. (1 Kings 1:1–3)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1935x2500px

Image ID: 4961

4961
Image 38 of 86
E183.19v - Hannah's Grief, Hannah's Prayer, The Road Home, Samuel

Hannah's Grief
After the offering is made, Elkanah distributes portions to his family. To Peninnah and her children goes the greatest portion. But to Hannah he can only give a small amount, although he loves and pities her much. Peninnah is depicted here a second time, standing behind the unfortunate Hannah and mocking her. (1 Kings 1:4–7)

Hannah's Prayer
Hannah returns to the temple alone and prays for a son, vowing that she will devote him to the Lord's priesthood. Eli, the chief priest, discovers her weeping and silently pleading before the Ark of the Covenant. Eli takes pity on her and asks the God of Israel to hear her petition. (1 Kings 1:9–17)

The Road Home
This miniature probably depicts the return of Elkanah's family to their home in Ramah. Elkanah appears to be reproving Peninnah, whose children nibble on bread. It is also possible that Elkanah is urging Hannah not to grieve, an event that, in the Bible, takes place before her prayers in the temple. (1 Kings 1:8; 1 Kings 1:19)

Samuel
A miracle occurs. The Lord has heard Hannah's plea and granted her a son. She names him Samuel, meaning "I have asked for him from the Lord." As Hannah adores the swaddled infant, Peninnah leans against the bed, supporting her chin on her hand and wearing an expression of quiet amazement. (1 Kings 1:20)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1923x2500px

Image ID: 4962

4962
Image 39 of 86
E183.20r - Hannah Honors her Vow, Recreant Priests

Hannah Honors her Vow
Gratefully, Hannah has returned to the temple in Shiloh and to Eli, the high priest. As thanks to the Lord, she has her servants bring three calves, three bushels of flour, and a bottle of wine. But her most important gift is her son, Samuel, whom she vowed she would consecrate to the Lord. Eli, seated behind the altar and the Ark of the Covenant, accepts these gifts on behalf of the Lord and receives Samuel into the ranks of the priesthood. (1 Kings 1:21–28)

Recreant Priests
At Shiloh, whenever a pilgrim makes a sacrifice, Eli's corrupt sons send a servant to fetch a portion. The servant's three-pronged fork guarantees that the priests will always take a large part of the sacrifice; at left, the frustrated man who made the offering raises his hands in disgust. The enormous cauldron seen here is suspended from a device that functions like a chimney-crook; its metal teeth enable it to be raised or lowered. (1 Kings 2:12–14)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1928x2500px

Image ID: 4963

4963
Image 40 of 86
E183.20v - God Calls to Samuel, Destined for Defeat

God Calls to Samuel
In the presence of the Ark, the Lord awakens the young Samuel and speaks to him for the first time, revealing the terrible destruction that will befall the House of Eli. Reluctantly, Samuel shares the Lord's tidings with his teacher. Raising his eyes and gesturing to heaven, Samuel repeats the judgment to the dismayed Eli, who can only resign himself to fate. This is a remarkable painting of the Ark of the Covenant, the only one in the Picture Bible that incorporates the winged cherubim described in the Book of Exodus. (1 Kings 3:10–18)

Destined for Defeat
Later, the corrupt sons of Eli, leading a procession of men who bear the Ark, accompany the Israelite army into battle against the Philistines. The last member of the cavalry looks over his shoulder toward the Ark; his worried expression foretokens the destruction that awaits the army. (1 Kings 4:1–4)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1929x2500px

Image ID: 4964

4964
Image 41 of 86
E183.21r - Samuel's Prophecy Fulfilled, All is Lost, Eli's Death, Dagon Dismembered

Samuel's Prophecy Fulfilled
Samuel's prophecy of the doom of the house of Eli is fulfilled with terrible consequences—thirty thousand men are killed. The Israelites are routed and massacred by the Philistines. The wicked sons of Eli lie slain by arrow and sword beneath the hooves of retreating horses. (1 Kings 4:5–11)

All is Lost
The Ark of the Covenant is captured and borne away by victorious Philistines. (1 Kings 4:11)

Eli's Death
A Benjamite messenger arrives in Shiloh with news of the Israelites'defeat. When Eli learns of his sons' deaths and the loss of the Ark of the Covenant, he is overwhelmed by shock and grief. He swoons backwards in his chair, breaks his neck, and dies. The people of Shiloh emerge from the city gate, expressing great dismay and grief. (1 Kings 4:12–18)

Dagon Dismembered
The Ark of the Covenant will bring no peace to the pagan Philistines. In their city of Ashdod, they set the Ark upon the altar of their god Dagon, and his image breaks in half. (1 Kings 5:2–5)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1919x2500px

Image ID: 4965

4965
Image 42 of 86
E183.21v - Plague in Ashdod, A Trespass Offering, The Ark in Beth Shemesh, A Burnt Offering

Plague in Ashdod
A great pestilence settles upon Ashdod. Mice swarm in the fields and villages, feeding on the plague-ridden corpses. (1 Kings 5:6–7)

A Trespass Offering
The Philistines seek to rid themselves of the troublesome Ark. They prepare an offering to the Lord to atone for their thievery. After consulting priests and diviners, the Philistines ready a cart pulled by milk cows that have newly calved (the calves appear harnessed in the Philistine stable). Upon the cart, in addition to the Ark, they place rich, golden offerings representing each Philistine province. Thus laden, the cart is driven into the territory of Beth Shemesh, where joyous field workers receive it. The miniature painter has mistakenly included live mice among the offerings; the Bible states that these, too, were made of gold. (1 Kings 6:2–13)

The Ark in Beth Shemesh
The Levites remove the Ark from the cart, along with the golden offerings, and place them upon a great stone. (1 Kings 6:14–15)

A Burnt Offering
Having safely unloaded the Ark, the men of Beth Shemesh burn the cart and the milk cows as an offering to the Lord. The men tending the fire hold their hands before their faces to shield themselves from the intense heat. (1 Kings 6:14–15)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1931x2500px

Image ID: 4966

4966
Image 43 of 86
E183.22r - Repentance, Samuel's Sacrifice Assures Victory

Repentance
For more than twenty years, the Israelites have suffered under the Philistines, so Samuel (holding a golden book as a sign of his authority and wisdom) advises the people to put away strange gods and turn wholeheartedly to the Lord. The repentant Israelites heed Samuel's words and smash the idols of the gods Baal and Ashtoreth. (1 Kings 7:3–6)

Samuel's Sacrifice Assures Victory
Samuel offers a sacrifice to the Lord for the salvation of Israel from the Philistines. The Lord hears this prayer and grants the Israelites victory. The terrified Philistines must retreat over the corpses of their fellows or be cut down by the pursuing Israelites. (1 Kings 7:7–11)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1915x2500px

Image ID: 4967

4967
Image 44 of 86
E183.22v - King Maker, Saul, the Lord's Anointed, "Is Saul Also among the Prophets?", Saul, King of Israel

King Maker
Samuel, now a very old man, is approached by the elders of Israel. They desire that he choose a king for them, so that they might be like other powerful nations. Uncertain, Samuel consults the Lord. Let them do as they wish, the Lord tells Samuel, but explain to them the hardships they will face under the rule of a king. Samuel shares the Lord's words with the elders, but they are stubborn in their desire for a mighty leader. (1 Kings 8:4–22)

Saul, the Lord's Anointed
The Lord has chosen Saul, a tall and handsome man from the tribe of Benjamin, to free Israel from the oppression of the Philistines. After he dines with Saul, Samuel dismisses a servant, who departs at the right. Samuel privately anoints Saul with holy oil, a sign that he is to become king over the children of Israel. (1 Kings 9:26–10:1)

"Is Saul Also among the Prophets?"
This miniature should depict Saul among the prophets, after his departure from Samuel. The painter appears to have confused the story, however, for here it is not Saul but Samuel that prophecies in the midst of the seers. The biblical account relates how Saul encountered a group of prophets and suddenly received the spirit of the Lord. (1 Kings 10:9–13)

Saul, King of Israel
Samuel assembles the tribes of Israel and before the elders proclaims Saul as king. Saul's great height inspires the people, who cheer "Long live the King!" (1 Kings 10:17–24)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1931x2500px

Image ID: 4968

4968
Image 45 of 86
E183.23r - A Plea for Help, Marshaling Forces

A Plea for Help
As Saul drives oxen in from the fields, he is met by anguished messengers from Jabesh-Gilead. Nahash the Ammonite has encamped outside the city and threatened to gouge out the right eye of every inhabitant. The king, enraged, slaughters two oxen and cuts them into pieces. The pieces are sent throughout Israel with a message: either follow Saul and Samuel into battle or expect the same to be done to your oxen. (1 Kings 11:1–7)

Marshaling Forces
Saul, crowned, bearing a scepter, and seated on an ivory throne, greets the warriors of Israel. The foremost kneel before the king and pledge their fealty. A standard bearer rides along in a supply cart. Behind Saul, a royal attendant assures a messenger from Jabesh-Gilead that help is at hand. (1 Kings 11:7–9)

Source: The Morgan Library
Image size: 1923x2500px

Image ID: 4969

4969
Image 46 of 86
E183.23v - Saul Victorious, A Proven Leader

Saul Victorious
Saul and his army devastate the Ammonites. Nahash attempts to flee the battlefield, but Saul, crowned and wearing an orange tunic, cleaves his enemy's skull with his sword. The Ammonites are assailed from all sides. From atop the battlements, an archer takes aim at the only unwounded Ammonite. An enormous catapult, pulled completely taut, will send a boulder crushing through the Ammonite ranks. Another contingent of Israelites emerges from the city gates and deals fatal blows with sword and club; an Ammonite in a blue tunic is violently unhorsed by a soldier wielding a battle ax. (1 Kings 11:11)

A Proven Leader
The Israelite victory is celebrated with Saul's public anointing and coronation. The king's throne in this illustration is identical to the sella curulis—the folding coronation chair of French kings housed in the royal abbey of Saint Denis. To the right, Samuel offers sacrifices to the Lord, who gazes upon his loyal servant from the heavens. (1 Kings 11:14–15)

Source: The Morgan Library

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E183.24r - Jonathan, a Prince, The Battle is joined

Jonathan, a Prince
Encamped outside of Gibeah, Saul rests beneath a pomegranate tree and advises his warriors. Meanwhile, without informing his father, Saul's son Jonathan bravely scales a mountain to attack a Philistine garrison. Accompanied only by his armor-bearer, Jonathan engages the enemy; together they kill twenty men. (1 Kings 14:1–14)

The Battle is Joined
Sounds of battle have been heard in the Philistine camp, so Saul has assembled his army. It is discovered that Jonathan and his armor-bearer are missing. As the priest Ahijah bears the Ark of the Covenant into battle, Saul issues a bold command: the army is not to partake of food until all of the Philistines are destroyed. Jonathan, riding ahead, does not hear his father's instruction. Cradling his great helm in his left hand, he leans from his horse and spears a honeycomb to eat. (1 Kings 14:17–27)

Source: The Morgan Library

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E183.24v - Unbalanced by Rage, A Royal Insubordinate

Unbalanced by Rage
Frustrated by the prolonged battle with the Philistines, Saul seeks the counsel of the Lord, who does not reply. The king discovers that Jonathan has eaten during the battle and wrongly deduces that this act offended the Lord. Saul resolves to kill Jonathan, but the Israelites deliver the youth from his father's misguided vengeance. (1 Kings 14:37–45)

A Royal Insubordinate
Afterwards, the Lord orders Saul, through Samuel, to destroy the Amalekites, stating that neither man nor beast is to be spared. In battle, Saul violently unhorses the Amalekite king Agag, but, contrary to the will of the Lord, takes Agag and his soldiers captive and collects the best of the enemy's cattle. (1 Kings 15:2–9)

Source: The Morgan Library

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E183.25r - The Lord's Remorse, The Kingdom Torn from Saul, Samuel Enforces the Lord's Will

The Lord's Remorse
Following Saul's disobedience, the Lord speaks to Samuel from the heavens, sharing His regret at having made Saul king. Samuel, kneeling beneath a tree and with his hands raised in grief, cries to the Lord throughout the night. (1 Kings 15:10–11)

The Kingdom Torn from Saul
Samuel has come to Saul with news of the Lord's displeasure. The prophet will hear none of the king's excuses and condemns Saul. As Samuel turns to leave, Saul takes hold of his mantle, tearing it. "The Lord has torn the kingdom of Israel from you today," Samuel says as he points at the tear, "and has given it to a neighbor of yours, who is better than you." (1 Kings 15:24–28)

Samuel Enforces the Lord's Will
Samuel orders Saul to bring forth the prisoner Agag. The fearful Amalekite king, still wearing his crown, pleads for mercy. Samuel, intent only on the Lord's command, decapitates the king and severs his body at the waist. Raising a bloodied sword, the enraged priest prepares to strike yet another blow. (1 Kings 15:31–33)

Source: The Morgan Library

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E183.25v - Samuel's Grief, Samuel Arrives in Bethlehem, David, a New Hope

Samuel's Grief
Although angry with Saul for his disobedient behavior, Samuel mourns for the king. As the priest grieves, the Lord reproaches him for doubting His judgment. Following the Lord's order, Samuel arises, collects a lamb, and departs for Bethlehem. There, the Lord has chosen a new king from among the sons of Jesse. (1 Kings 15:35–16:2)

Samuel Arrives in Bethlehem
Elders of Bethlehem greet Samuel at the city gate. The priest assures them that his intentions are peaceful. (1 Kings 16:3–5)

David, a New Hope
After offering a sacrifice to the Lord, Samuel sanctifies Jesse and his sons. The priest asks the Lord to identify the chosen one, but he is not among the sons. "Are all the young men here?" Samuel asks. "There remains yet the youngest," replies Jesse, "and there he is, keeping the sheep." On a nearby hillock, David sits playing his pipe and ringing a bell. A dog, seven sheep, and three goats surround him. His favorite instrument, the harp, leans against a tree. (1 Kings 16:5–11)

Source: The Morgan Library

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E183.26r - David Anointed, An Evil Spirit Troubles Saul

David Anointed
As Jesse and six of his sons look on, David is anointed by Samuel. The Lord gazes down upon the proceedings from the heavens. Those who support David, standing at the right, might also represent David's father and brothers. (1 Kings 16:12–13)

An Evil Spirit Troubles Saul
The Spirit of the Lord, in the form of a dove with a halo, departs from Saul. Its place is taken by a horned and cloven-hoofed devil that flutters over the king's shoulder. Saul's servants suggest the soothing music of a harp as a remedy for his troubled thoughts. The king, restlessly pulling on the collar of his tunic, agrees. David is selected to play for the king, for he is famed for his skill with the harp. Jesse, standing in the doorway of his home, grants the royal servants permission to take the boy to Saul. (1 Kings 16:14–19)

Source: The Morgan Library

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E183.26v - David Meets Saul, Soothing Music

David Meets Saul
David arrives at court. He is accompanied by four of Saul's servants and a donkey carrying a young goat sent by Jesse as homage to the king. The king is exceedingly pleased with the young David. (1 Kings 16:20–21)

Soothing Music
David's playing soothes the king. The troublesome demon departs, and the exhausted Saul is able to rest. Servants and elders gather together and remark on the boy's beautiful playing. (1 Kings 16:22–23)

Source: The Morgan Library

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E183.27r - Goliath, A Father's Concern, David Entrusts Jesse's Flock to Another

Goliath
Saul and his army ride forth to face the Philistine army once more. The king, astride a horse adorned with orange trappings, glances uneasily over his shoulder: on the opposite side of the battlefield, he has spied Goliath, the Philistine giant. Goliath carries a gigantic shield on his back and leans on a spear nearly twice the height of a man. A huge sword is girt round his waist. As his armor-bearer and fellow soldiers confidently look on, the giant taunts the Israelite army, demanding that an opponent face him in single combat. (1 Kings 17:3–8)

A Father's Concern
Three of David's brothers have followed Saul into battle against the Philistines. Jesse sends David to the Israelite camp with supplies for his brothers and charges him to return with news of the war. (1 Kings 17:14–19)

Source: The Morgan Library

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E183.27v - The War Effort, David Determined

The War Effort
Young David arrives at the battle with provisions for his brethren and passes supplies to the baggage officers. The cart is filled with armor to be used in the battle against the Philistines. (1 Kings 17:20–22)

David Determined
The precocious David makes his way to the battlefield, where Saul confers with his men. While among the soldiers, David hears the taunts of Goliath and resolves to do battle with him, despite the chiding of his older brother. Meanwhile, the haughty Philistine giant continues to yell challenges and insults from across the battlefield. (1 Kings 17:23–30)

Source: The Morgan Library

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E183.28r - David Petitions Saul, David Armed for the Combat, David Removes the Armor

David Petitions Saul
David, his shepherd's crook in hand, asks King Saul for the right to do battle with Goliath. The king attempts to dissuade his youthful servant from this dangerous task, but David is adamant. With the Lord's help, David explains, he has slain a lion and a bear. So will the Philistine giant fall, for he has dared to curse the army of the Living God. The king yields. Saul's warriors glance at each other, clearly uncertain of the wisdom of this decision. (1 Kings 17:31–37)

David Armed for the Combat
Saul, resigned to David's wishes, clothes David with a coat of mail and fits a great helm over his head. (1 Kings 17:38)

David Removes the Armor
Unaccustomed to the weight and bulk of the armor, David removes his helmet and sword and pulls the mail coat off over his head. Taking hold of his shepherd's staff, he makes his way to a brook and pulls five smooth stones from the water. (1 Kings 17:39–40)

Source: The Morgan Library

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E183.28v - David Slays Goliath, David's Vow to Saul Fulfilled

David Slays Goliath
Before Goliath can draw his sword, David strikes him in the forehead with a stone from his sling. As the dismayed Philistines look on, the victorious youth cuts off Goliath's head using the giant's own mighty sword. (1 Kings 17:45–51)

David's Vow to Saul Fulfilled
After David's victory over Goliath, Abner, commander of the army, presents the young hero to a grateful Saul. The king accepts the head of Goliath as proof of David's conquest and, as a token of friendship, David accepts the costly garments of the king's son, Jonathan. (1 Kings 17:57–1 Kings 18:4)

Source: The Morgan Library

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E183.29r - Saul's Envy, Madness, A Dangerous Post

Saul's Envy
Saul is enraged and envious when the victorious David, bearing the head of Goliath, receives greater praise than he. "Saul slew his thousands," the Israelite women sing, "and David his ten thousands." (1 Kings 18:6–9)

Madness
Later, as David plays for Saul, the evil spirit re-enters the king's ear. Saul aims a spear at David, who neatly steps aside and avoids the blow. Now, the king is sure that the Lord has given his favor to David. (1 Kings 18:10–11)

A Dangerous Post
His fear of David mounting, Saul schemes to rid himself of the young warrior by bestowing upon him the dangerous duty of captaining a thousand men. (1 Kings 18:12–14)

Source: The Morgan Library

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E183.29v - Michal's Dowry, A Bloody Struggle

Michal's Dowry
Now a grown man, David is offered the hand of Michal, the king's daughter. Saul intends to use Michal's love as an opportunity to destroy David. Rather than demand a traditional bride price, the king requires David to bring him the foreskins of one hundred Philistines. The mature David is richly adorned; he carries gloves and wears a crimson coat over a gold tunic; his fiancée is likewise beautifully outfitted; she holds a lapdog and wears a golden chaplet, brooch, and girdle. Tied to her girdle is a delicately brocaded purse. (1 Kings 18:20–26)

A Bloody Struggle
Blood-stained swords flash angrily as David's company slaughters the Philistines. David, entering the fray from the left, hacks through an opponent's shoulder. All around, his warriors grapple and struggle with the enemy, landing vicious blows with swords and daggers. A remarkable black soldier stands out among the Philistines. (1 Kings 18:27)

Source: The Morgan Library

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E183.30r - Well Ahead, David and Michal Wedded, Saul Orders David's Assassination, Jonathan warns David

Well Ahead
David returns victorious to Saul, bearing twice the required dowry. The modest painter has replaced the foreskins in the biblical text with the victims' heads. Saul, disappointed that David survived the battle, feigns appreciation. (1 Kings 18:27)

David and Michal Wedded
David and Michal are joined by the king in the presence of witnesses. Michal, still holding her lapdog, gives David a coy glance. The stern gaze Saul levels at his new son-in-law, however, foreshadows the conflict that is about to erupt. (1 Kings 18:27)

Saul Orders David's Assassination
David has become famous for his unsurpassed military Skill and wisdom. Saul is certain that the Lord favors David and is overcome by fear of the young commander. The king summons his son Jonathan and his servants and orders that David be slain. (1 Kings 18:28–19:1)

Source: The Morgan Library

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E183.30v - Jonathan Brokers Peace, The War Resumes, Saul's Rage, A Second Assassination Attempt

Jonathan Brokers Peace
Jonathan, having warned David, protests his friend's innocence to the king. As proof of David's loyalty, the prince recounts the many feats of arms his friend has undertaken in Saul's name. Saul is dissuaded from killing David and once again receives him at court. (1 Kings 19:3–7)

The War Resumes
Again, the Israelites engage the Philistines. David and his company slaughter a great number of the enemy and chase them from the battlefield. (1 Kings 19:8)

Saul's Rage
Saul is again afflicted by an evil spirit sent by the Lord. The jealous king takes aim at his son-in-law with a spear, but David neatly steps aside and out of harm's way. (1 Kings 19: 9–10)

Source: The Morgan Library

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E183.31r - Michal Delays the Soldiers, A Trusted Friend, Saul Learns of David's Whereabouts, Saul's Officers Struck by the Spirit of the Lord

Michal Delays the Soldiers
Michal has warned David of her father's new plot to kill him. While David scrambles through a window, his wife delays the king's assassins. My husband is ill, she explains, and must stay in bed. She has arranged a dummy in the bed and covered its head with a hairy goat skin. The suspicious soldiers are about to discover Michal's ruse. (1 Kings 19:11–17)

A Trusted Friend
David flees to Ramah and takes refuge with Samuel and other prophets. The priest listens intently as David explains his plight. (1 Kings 19:18)

Saul Learns of David's Whereabouts
A field hand arrives at court and informs the king that David hides in Ramah with Samuel. Saul immediately dispatches officers to arrest David. (1 Kings 19:19–20)

Saul's Officers Struck by the Spirit of the Lord
Saul's officers arrive in Ramah. As they approach Samuel and David, the spirit of the Lord descends upon them in the form of a dove. David watches in amazement as his would-be captors begin to prophesy and wildly dance about. (1 Kings 19:20)

Source: The Morgan Library

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E183.31v - Once More among the Prophets, Jonathan Consoles David, Sharp Words

Once More among the Prophets
Infuriated by the behavior of his officers, Saul decides to pursue David himself. But the king fares no differently than his envoys. When he finally catches up to David and Samuel, Saul is overcome by the spirit of the Lord. He begins to prophesy and pulls his mantle over his head; for a full day and night, the king will lay down naked and prophesy with the rest. (1 Kings 19:21–24)

Jonathan Consoles David
David, armed with spear and sword, secretly meets with Jonathan. The friends swear loyalty to each other and agree on a plan that will insure David's safety. Jonathan will approach his father on David's behalf in order to determine the king's mind. If the king is still intent on harming David, Jonathan will send warning. (1 Kings 20:1–17)

Sharp Words
It is the feast of the New Moon. Servants bustle about the high table with wine and platters of fish. As an evil spirit whispers in his ear, Saul becomes aware of David's absence. Jonathan apologizes on behalf of his friend, explaining that David has traveled to Bethlehem to sacrifice with his family. Suspecting treachery, Saul curses Jonathan and prepares to hurl an enormous javelin at him. Jonathan escapes harm and is now convinced of his father's evil intentions. (1 Kings 20:27–33)

Source: The Morgan Library

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E183.32r - A Tearful Farewell, Ahimelech Provisions David, David Feigns Madness

A Tearful Farewel
Accompanied by a page, Jonathan returns to the field where David lies hidden. He shoots three arrows as a signal to his friend and orders the page to retrieve them. After the boy is dismissed, David emerges from his rocky hiding place and embraces Jonathan. After swearing allegiance to Jonathan and his house, David takes his leave. (1 Kings 20: 35–43)

Ahimelech Provisions David
David makes his way to Nob and to the place of the priest Ahimelech. The priest is uneasy, observing that David travels alone and unarmed. David explains that he is on a secret mission for the king. Satisfied, the priest provisions David with the only food on hand—circular loaves of hallowed bread—and arms him with a familiar weapon, the mighty sword of Goliath. Doeg, Saul's chief herdsman, is witness to the event and will inform the king. (1 Kings 21:6–9)

David Feigns Madness
Seeking refuge, David travels to the court of Achish, king of Gath. Soon, the famous warrior is recognized by the servants of Achish and brought before the king. Fearing the consequences of discovery, David pretends madness. He deliberately stumbles about, swinging an enormous club. The annoyed king turns to his advisors and demands that the lunatic be dismissed. (1 Kings 21:10–14)

Source: The Morgan Library

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E183.32v - A Massing of Malcontents, Ahimelech Executed

A Massing of Malcontents
David escapes to the wilderness. At the cave of Adullam, his distressed brothers and other poor people of the kingdom gather to the young leader and proclaim him their prince. All told, David's ragtag company will number four-hundred men. (1 Kings 22:1–2)

Ahimelech Executed
Saul has discovered how Ahimelech and his priestly house provided David with aid. Ahimelech reminds Saul that David is a faithful servant, but the paranoid king will not listen to reason: the priest and his entire family are violently killed. (1 Kings 22:11–18)

Source: The Morgan Library

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E183.33r - Keilah Liberated, Retreat, Royal Repose

Keilah Liberated
David, in obedience to the Lord's command, engages the Philistines at Keilah in furious combat. The Israelites grapple with their opponents and strike terrible blows. (1 Kings 23:4–5)

Retreat
Saul will soon arrive in Keilah. The Lord warns David that the people of the town will betray him to the king, so he gathers his forces and departs. (1 Kings 23:10–13)

Royal Repose
Later, Saul and his army arrive at the cave of En Gedi, where David and his men lie hidden. As the king empties his bowels in the dark cave, David quietly shears a corner from his mantle. When Saul and his troops leave the cave, they are startled by David, who protests his allegiance to the king. He holds aloft his trophy as proof that, had he desired, he could have easily slain Saul. (1 Kings 24:3–12)

Source: The Morgan Library

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E183.33v - Abigail Cools David's Wrath, Nabal Terrified, Nabal's Death

Abigail Cools David's Wrath
David has requested provisions from Nabal, a wealthy sheepherder, and promised in return to continue his protection of Nabal's flocks. But Nabal dismisses David's envoys with disparaging remarks. Abigail, Nabal's wife, regrets her husband's action. She meets David on the road with pack animals loaded with supplies for the army and thus allays David's wrath. (1 Kings 25:18–35)

Nabal Terrified
Nabal sits slumped in his chair after a night of heavy drinking, listening to Abigail reveal how narrowly he escaped the wrath of David. Nabal is struck with such fear that his heart dies within him, and he becomes like a stone. (1 Kings 25:36–37)

Nabal's Death
After ten days, Nabal dies. Abigail and her maidservants grieve at his bedside. When the news reaches David, he praises the Lord for returning Nabal's wickedness upon his own head. Abigail will shortly accept David's marriage proposal and join him in the wilderness. (1 Kings 25:38)

Source: The Morgan Library

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E183.34r - David Spares Saul a Second Time, Kidnapped

David Spares Saul a Second Time
Saul's army has encamped outside of the wilderness of Ziph. David, followed by his commander Abishai, slips into the pavilion where the king is sleeping and steals the royal cup and spear. Later, from the safety of a mountain top, David calls to Saul and the commander of his army, Abner. He displays before them the stolen cup and spear and berates Abner for his carelessness in protecting the king. (1 Kings 26:7–25)

Kidnapped
David's wives and the families of his followers have been taken captive by the Amalekites, along with all of the inhabitants of Ziklag. With six-hundred men, David sets out to rescue them. On the way, he meets an Egyptian boy, abandoned by the Amalekites, who agrees to guide David to the enemy. (1 Kings 30:5–15)

Source: The Morgan Library

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E183.34v - Slaughter of the Amalekites, Saul's Last Stand

Slaughter of the Amalekites
David finds the Amalekites feasting in a field. The thieves are caught unawares and butchered. All of the captives are recovered; David himself cuts the fetters from the wrists of one of his wives. One of David's company cleaves the skull of an enemy with a sword bearing the inscription 'ODISMORT'(hatred, death), a declaration of the weapon's deadly efficacy. (1 Kings 30:16–19)

Saul's Last Stand
At Mount Gilboa, Saul makes his final stand against the Philistines. The enemy destroys the king's army and kills his three sons, among them, Jonathan. As the advancing Philistines hack through fleeing Israelite horsemen, crossbowmen take aim at the king and grievously wound him. Saul turns for one final look at his attackers and shamefully falls on his own sword. One of the Philistines wields a blade inscribed 'IOIOUSE'('Joyous'), the name of Charlemagne's sword in the Song of Roland. (1 Kings 31:1–6)

Source: The Morgan Library

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E183.35r - Spoils of War, Saul Decapitated, Trophies, A Grisly Parade

Spoils of War
Following the battle, the Philistines find Saul's body on Mount Gilboa and strip it of the armor. (1 Kings 31:8)

Saul Decapitated
Having collected the king's armor, the Philistines decapitate his corpse. (1 Kings 31:9)

Trophies
The Philistines place Saul's armor—including his shield, sword, and crowned helmet—on the altar of their god, Ashtoreth. (1 Kings 31:10)

A Grisly Parade
The king's head, shown crowned, is shamefully affixed to a pike and paraded throughout the Philistine lands. (1 Kings 31:9–10)

Source: The Morgan Library

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E183.35v - The Final Indignity, A Doleful Task, A Funeral Pyre, Sad Tidings

The Final Indignity
The Philistines have strung Saul's decapitated body to a war engine and suspended the corpse above the city walls of Beth Shan. Three men pull down on the counterpoise, raising the gruesome trophy, while a fourth guides the swinging joist with his spear. (1 Kings 31:10)

A Doleful Task
Having learned how the Philistines disgraced the king's corpse, valiant men of Jabesh Gilead journey through the night in secret to retrieve the bodies of Saul and his sons. As one soldier pushes the war engine's counterpoise upwards with his spear, his fellows, wearing mournful expressions, hold down the joist and cut loose the king's body. (1 Kings 31:11–12)

A Funeral Pyre
Grieving men of Jabesh Gilead prepare to place Saul's corpse on the same enormous fire that consumes his dead sons. They will collect the bones and bury them in the woods of Jabesh Gilead, and afterwards fast for seven days. (1 Kings 31:12–13)

Sad Tidings
A survivor of the Gilboa massacre arrives in Ziklag and reports to David of the deaths of Saul and Jonathan. The survivor recounts how he discovered Saul transfixed upon his own spear, and at the king's request killed him before the Philistines had the opportunity. Now he has brought the king's crown to David, its rightful owner. (2 Kings 1: 2–10)

Source: The Morgan Library

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E183.36r - David's Response, David Anointed King of Judah, Ishbosheth Made King of Israel

David's Response
David, having wept and mourned the entire day for Saul and Jonathan, gathers his composure and turns to deal with the messenger who killed Saul. He is furious that the man unashamedly and without fear slew the king, the Lord's anointed, and so orders his death. The messenger kneels in an attitude of prayer as his executioner aims a second blow at his neck. (2 Kings 1:13–16)

David Anointed King of Judah
The man praying in the foreground converses with the Lord. According to the biblical text, this should be David, but the figure depicted does not resemble him. David, his wives, and followers go to Hebron in accordance with the Lord's will. There, David is met by men of Judah and anointed king. A priest pours the sacred oil on the head of the new king, and he is presented with the crown. (2 Kings 2:1–4)

Ishbosheth Made King of Israel
Saul's son Ishbosheth still lives, and Abner, Saul's general, makes him king of Israel. Abner, guiding the king's horse, presents the new king to men of the tribes of Israel; only the house of Judah withholds support, for they follow David. The Latin and Persian scribes who later added inscriptions to the Picture Bible misunderstood this scene as the acclamation of David by the men of Judah. (2 Kings 2:8–10)

Source: The Morgan Library

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E183.36v - Israel and Judah at War, Joab's Brother Slain

Israel and Judah at War
The forces of Abner, commander of Ishbosheth's army and Joab, commander of David's forces, encounter each other at the pool of Gibeon. After sizing each other up, the two commanders agree to a contest pitting twelve men from each army against one another. A bloody struggle ensues, each man catching his foe about the neck and stabbing him. The remainder of the armies join in combat, and Abner's force is bested. As Joab observes the conflict from the left, Abner and his dejected followers flee at right. (2 Kings 2:12–17)

Joab's Brother Slain
Joab and his forces pursue Abner and his fleeing army. Asahel, Joab's fleet-footed brother, catches up to Abner and attempts to kill him. Twice Abner warns Asahel to retreat, wishing to avoid a personal feud. Asahel will not listen. Abner, his hand forced, turns about and runs Asahel through with a spear. (2 Kings 2:18–23)

Source: The Morgan Library

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E183.37r - Abner Revolts, David's Demand, Abner Takes Michal from Her Husband, Michal Returned to David

Abner Revolts
Conflict has arisen between Abner and Ishbosheth. Abner, angry with the Israelite king, sends messengers to Judah in the hope that he might form an alliance with David. (2 Kings 3:12)

David's Demand
Abner's messengers arrive in Judah with their master's proposal. David agrees to reconcile with Abner on one condition: he must return Michal, David's wife, whom Saul had given to another. (2 Kings 3:13)

Abner Takes Michal from Her Husband
Ishbosheth has agreed to return Michal to David. Michal's husband weeps piteously as Abner and his soldiers lead her away. (2 Kings 3:14–16)

Michal Returned to David
Abner has fulfilled his end of the bargain. The commander kneels before David and presents the king his lost wife. Michal appears to greet her former husband with some trepidation.

Source: The Morgan Library

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E183.37v - David Feasts with Michal and Abner, Abner's Pledge to David, Joab Slays Abner, David Informed of Joab's Crime

David Feasts with Michal and Abner
At the king's table in Hebron, Michal accepts a cup from David. To her right, Abner and men of his company celebrate the new alliance with Judah. The suspicious, half-hidden bearded figure in the background wearing a green tunic is probably the vengeful Joab. (2 Kings 3:20–21)

Abner's Pledge to David
Upon his departure, Abner embraces David and swears that he will soon rally all of Israel to the king's side. Joab, in green tunic and holding a pair of gloves, awaits his opportunity to seek revenge on Abner at the right. (2 Kings 3:21–22)

Joab Slays Abner
Joab summons Abner to speak with him at the gate of Hebron. Abner, not suspecting any foul play, agrees to the meeting. There, Joab treacherously stabs his rival in the groin and gains revenge for the death of his brother, Asahel. (2 Kings 3:26–27)

David Informed of Joab's Crime
Abner's mournful companions return to David with news of their commander's assassination. Joab's crime and his disregard for authority angers David's; the king curses Joab's house and his progeny. (2 Kings 3:28–29)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1919x2500px

Image ID: 5023

5023
Image 75 of 86
E183.38r - A Stately Funeral, Rechab and Baanah, Traitors

A Stately Funeral
David and his fellows grieve for Abner and prepare his burial in Hebron. Abner's richly draped coffin is set on a bier with projecting handles and is surrounded by four enormous tapers set on tripods. (2 Kings 3:31–34)

Rechab and Baanah, Traitors
News of Abner's death has spread throughout Israel, and Ishbosheth fears for the safety of his kingdom. Two of Ishbosheth's captains, Rechab and Baanah, decide to defect. They are certain that if they slay Ishbosheth they will gain great favor in David's eyes. Here, the long-haired rogues, swords drawn, arrive at the king's house to find the doorkeeper asleep, exhausted from sifting grain. The traitors creep to the sleeping Ishbosheth in his chamber and kill him. (2 Kings 4:1–7)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1922x2500px

Image ID: 5024

5024
Image 76 of 86
E183.38v - The King is Displeased, The Tribes under One King, The Conquest of Jerusalem

The King is Displeased
Rechab and Baanah, bearing the head of Ishbosheth, arrive at David's house and seek his favor. The king is far from pleased; he reminds the traitors of the fate of the messenger who sought royal favor for having slain Saul. How much greater a crime to have killed a an innocent man asleep in his bed! The assassins will pay for the outrage with their own blood. After cutting off their hands and feet, three servants hang the traitors' bodies from a rickety gallows. (2 Kings 4:8–12)

The Tribes under One King
The remaining tribes of Israel, now without a ruler, arrive in Hebron and proclaim David king. David removes the crown of Judah and is anointed. With great acclamation from the assembled elders, David will receive the crown of a united Israel. (2 Kings 5:1–3)

The Conquest of Jerusalem
David leads the Israelite army to Jerusalem and there attacks Zion, the fortress of the Jebusites. Battle-ready Israelite soldiers scale the walls of the stronghold, but David halts their assault when an elder of Zion emerges and surrenders the keys to the city. The king establishes his house in the fortress of Zion; henceforth, Jerusalem will be called the city of David. (2 Kings 5:6–9)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1907x2500px

Image ID: 5025

5025
Image 77 of 86
E183.39r - Israel Triumphant, The Chariot of Abinadab

Israel Triumphant
The Philistines have learned that David is now king of all Israel and decide to take action against this new threat. David, sanctioned by the heavenly gaze of the Lord, rides forth with his army to deal with the enemy. At Baal Perazim (which literally means Baal is broken), the battle begins and the Philistines are utterly defeated. David, bearing a blue shield with a golden lion rampart, runs a Philistine horseman through with his javelin. The contrast between the well-organized ranks of Israelite cavalry at the left and the chaotic mass of fleeing Philistines at the right testifies to the military superiority of David's forces. (2 Kings 5:17–20)

The Chariot of Abinadab
The king seeks to bring the Ark of the Covenant out of the house of Abinadab and into Jerusalem. But as David plays his harp at the head of a joyous procession of musicians, he is stopped suddenly by an awful sight. Uzzah, the son of Abinadab, reaches out to steady the Ark on the bumpy road. For this rashness, the Lord strikes him down where he stands. As the tragedy is pointed out to Uzzah's brother, Ahio, the king casts a concerned glance at the Ark. He decides to enshrine it temporarily in the house of Obed-Edom, who greets David from his doorway at the right. From the heavens, the hand of the Lord blesses Obed-Edom's house. (2 Kings 6:2–11)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1909x2500px

Image ID: 5026

5026
Image 78 of 86
E183.39v - David's Greatest Triumph, The Ark Enshrined in Jerusalem, David Blesses Israel

David's Greatest Triumph
David retrieves the Ark of the Covenant from Obed-Edom's house, and a jubilant celebration ensues as the triumphant king, playing upon his harp, leads it into Jerusalem. Once the Ark has come six paces into the city, a sacrifice is made of an ox and a ram. No one is more overjoyed than the king himself, who dances and leaps before the procession. David's wild behavior embarrasses Michal, who points accusingly at him from her window. But the king is unconcerned, wishing only to give thanks and humble himself before God. (2 Kings 6:12–16)

The Ark Enshrined in Jerusalem
The Ark of the Covenant is placed in the new tabernacle David has built for it. Sacrifices and peace offerings are made to the Lord. (2 Kings 6:17)

David Blesses Israel
Having given thanks, the king blesses the people and distributes food to all. (2 Kings 6:18–19)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1931x2500px

Image ID: 5027

5027
Image 79 of 86
E183.40r - Building Plans, David is Satisfied, Syria Subdued

Building Plans
Dissatisfied with the tabernacle he has built for the Ark of the Covenant, David consults with the prophet Nathan. The king points to the ornate roof of his home, questioning if it is right that the Ark should rest in a shelter poorer than his own house. The Lord speaks to David through Nathan, revealing that the building of the new Temple shall fall not to David but to his son, Solomon. (2 Kings 7:2–13)

David is Satisfied
David accepts this judgment and gives thanks in the tabernacle for the Lord's many blessings. (2 Kings 7:18–29)

Syria Subdued
The Israelite conquest continues; David destroys Hadadezer, king of Zobah, and subdues his Syrian allies. As David pursues Hadadezer, Israelite forces lay waste to Damascus. (2 Kings 8:3–6)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1905x2500px

Image ID: 5028

5028
Image 80 of 86
E183.40v - David's Command to Ziba, David's Great Charity, Diplomacy, Shameful Treatment

David's Command to Ziba
David learns from Ziba, a former servant of Saul, that a member of Saul's house still lives. He is the crippled Mephibosheth, Jonathan's son. David orders Ziba to fetch him. (2 Kings 9:2–5)

David's Great Charity
Ziba presents Mephibosheth, Jonathan's son, to the king. David takes his hand and swears to Mephibosheth that he will always eat at the king's table. Moreover, the king once more sets Ziba and his house under Mephibosheth, to insure that Jonathan's progeny will thrive. (2 Kings 9:6–7)

Diplomacy
The king of Ammon has died, and his son has succeeded him. David, who was once allied with the king, sends messengers to show his good will toward the new ruler. (2 Kings 10:1–2)

Shameful Treatment
David's envoys arrive in Ammon to offer his friendship to Hanun, the new king. Hanun's servants, suspicious of David's intentions, persuade the king that David has sent his men to spy. Hanun thus shamefully orders that half of each man's beard be cut off and their clothes cut to reveal their nakedness. (2 Kings 10:3–4)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1937x2500px

Image ID: 5029

5029
Image 81 of 86
E183.41r - David's Wrath, The Syrians Rally and Are Defeated

David's Wrath
A messenger returns with news of the shameful treatment that David's envoys have received at the court of the Ammonite king, Hanun. Hanun, confident that David will attempt to avenge the indignity, hires thousands of Syrian mercenaries to strengthen the Ammonite army. It is to no avail, however, as Joab shortly leads the Israelites into battle and defeats the enemy. In this scene, as the last of the Israelite army rides forth, Joab lands a crushing blow with a battle axe that fells an enemy rider and his horse. (2 Kings 10:6–14)

The Syrians Rally and Are Defeated
Ashamed of their loss to Israel, the Syrians assemble a great army; men have come from across the Euphrates to join Shobach, commander of the Syrian army. David orders the Israelite army across the Jordan and engages the enemy head on. In the heat of battle, David encounters Shobach and runs him through with a spear; in total, forty-thousand Syrian soldiers are slain. (2 Kings 10:15–18)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1909x2500px

Image ID: 5030

5030
Image 82 of 86
E183.41v - David's Lust, Adutlery, Damage Control

David's Lust
The stage is set for David's greatest sin. One evening, from the roof of his palace, the king spies a lovely woman at her bath. Overcome with lust, he sends a messenger to discover her identity and learns that she is Bathsheba, wife of Uriah the Hittite. (2 Kings 11:2–4)

Adutlery
David takes Bathsheba to bed, and she conceives a son by him. (2 Kings 11:4–5)

Damage Control
Joab is summoned and ordered to fetch Uriah from the Israelite camp. David orders the soldier to return home to his wife, reasoning that if Uriah presently lays with Bathsheba, no one can accuse her of infidelity when her child is born. (2 Kings 11:6)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1947x2500px

Image ID: 5031

5031
Image 83 of 86
E183.42r - Uriah Refuses to Return Home, Uriah is Slain

Uriah Refuses to Return Home
Uriah will not obey David's orders to return home, for to do so in a time of war would bring shame upon him. He sets up his eagle-topped pavilion before the king's house and enjoys a rich feast provided by the king. David's grand doorway is crowned by a finial topped by a royal fleur-de-lis. (2 Kings 11:7–9)

Uriah is Slain
David, unable to convince Uriah to return home, sends him back to the Israelite camp with a sealed letter for Joab. Joab is instructed to reassign Uriah to the fiercest part of the battle. Uriah is posted to the front lines of the Israelite siege at Rabbah, where valiant men defend the citadel. There he is struck by a bolt fired from an enemy crossbow and killed. (2 Kings 11:14–17)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1948x2500px

Image ID: 5032

5032
Image 84 of 86
E183.42v - Bathsheba is Informed of Uriah's Death, David Weds Bathsheba, A Son is Born, The Lord is Displeased with David

Bathsheba is Informed of Uriah's Death
A messenger arrives in Jerusalem with news of Uriah's death. Bathsheba and a member of her household express their great dismay. In this illustration, the outline of Bathsheba's house has been traced from that of David's palace on the preceding page. (2 Kings 11:26)

David Weds Bathsheba
The period of mourning having passed, David brings Bathsheba to his house and weds her. The thirteenth-century painter has depicted Bathsheba crowned like a contemporary queen. (2 Kings 11:27)

A Son is Born
Bathsheba gives birth to a son. As Bathsheba directs a maidservant from her bed, another woman rocks the infant in his cradle. (2 Kings 11:27)

The Lord is Displeased with David
David's misdeeds have enraged the Lord. Bathsheba, holding her newborn son in her lap, listens as the priest Nathan reproves David on the Lord's behalf. Because of his sins, strife will arise from within David's own household, and his infant son will die. The king begs the Lord to spare the child, but the Lord will not listen. (2 Kings 12:7–14)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1942x2500px

Image ID: 5033

5033
Image 85 of 86
E183.43r - Joab Reproaches David, David Greets the People, Sheba's Rebellion, Judah Remains Loyal

Joab Reproaches David
The Rebellion crushed, David and his people return to Jerusalem. A Cushite arrives at the gates with the news of Absalom's death, and the king is greatly distraught. Joab, wearing a blue tunic, is angered to find the king so aggrieved and condemns David. He is weary of the compassion his lord has shown to his enemies over the years. Rather than mourn the traitor Absalom, Joab suggests, give praise to the household and servants who have remained loyal. (2 Kings 18:32 – 2 Kings 19:6)

David Greets the People
David is shamed by Joab's words. Servants set up an ivory throne in the gateway of the palace, and the king greets the people, assuring them that all is well. (2 Kings 19:7–8)

Sheba's Rebellion
Sheba, the son of Bichri, a Benjamite, sounds his trumpet and rallies men of Israel to his side. He labels David a usurper and conspires to wrest the throne from him. (2 Kings 20:1–2)

Judah Remains Loyal
The men of Judah, David's oldest supporters, will not abandon their king for the greedy Sheba. The loyal supporters rally to David in Jerusalem. (2 Kings 20:2–3)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1961x2500px

Image ID: 5034

5034
Image 86 of 86
E183.43v - E183.43v - David Orders the Destruction of Sheba, Joab Slays Amasa, Joab Brokers Peace

David Orders the Destruction of Sheba
David chooses Amasa to lead an assault against Sheba, but loses patience when his new commander is late. Abishai, Joab's brother, is summoned and instructed to pursue the enemy. (2 Kings 20:4–10)

Joab Slays Amasa
At Gibeon, Joab encounters Amasa, the new commander of David's army, and, thus, Joab's rival. Joab takes Amasa's chin in his hand as if to embrace and kiss him, but instead thrusts his sword through his rival's belly. (2 Kings 20:9–10)

Joab Brokers Peace
Joab pursues Sheba to the city of Abel, where the traitor and his forces have taken refuge. In the foreground lies the slain Amasa, his bowels spilling forth. As the army prepares to loose a trebuchet, Joab is hailed by an elderly woman of the city. She appeals to the commander's mercy and strikes a bargain. She will produce the head of the traitor Sheba if Joab will spare the city. Moments later, the traitor is decapitated and his head displayed to the soldiers. The siege and the rebellion are at an end. (2 Kings 20:15–22)

Source: The Morgan Library

Image size: 1963x2500px

Image ID: 5035

5035
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E183.1r - The First Day, The Second Day, The Third Day, The Fourth Day
E183.1r - The First Day, The Second Day, The Third Day, The Fourth Day
E183.1v - The Fifth Day, The Sixth Day, The Creation of Woman; The Tree of Knowledge, The Fall from Grace
E183.1v - The Fifth Day, The Sixth Day, The Creation of Woman; The Tree of Knowledge, The Fall from Grace
E183.2r - The Expulsion from Paradise, The Trials of Man and Woman, The Sacrifices of Cain and Abel; Cain Murders His Brother, The Death of Cain
E183.2r - The Expulsion from Paradise, The Trials of Man and Woman, The Sacrifices of Cain and Abel; Cain Murders His Brother, The Death of Cain
E183.2v - Noah Builds an Ark, Searching for Dry Land, A Joyous Landing, A New Beginning
E183.2v - Noah Builds an Ark, Searching for Dry Land, A Joyous Landing, A New Beginning
E183.3r - Noah in His Cups, A Monumental Misunderstanding, The Greatest of Tests, Lot Taken Captive
E183.3r - Noah in His Cups, A Monumental Misunderstanding, The Greatest of Tests, Lot Taken Captive
E183.3v - Abraham's Vengeance, A Blessing, The Corruption of the Sodomites
E183.3v - Abraham's Vengeance, A Blessing, The Corruption of the Sodomites
E183.4r - Divine Judgment, A Father's Blessing, Isaac's Despair, A Marvelous Vision
E183.4r - Divine Judgment, A Father's Blessing, Isaac's Despair, A Marvelous Vision
E183.4v - A Bride Price, A Covenant, Wrestling the Almighty, All is Forgiven
E183.4v - A Bride Price, A Covenant, Wrestling the Almighty, All is Forgiven
E183.5r - Joseph, a favorite Son, Sold into Slavery, Bad Blood, False Accusations and Portents of the Future
E183.5r - Joseph, a favorite Son, Sold into Slavery, Bad Blood, False Accusations and Portents of the Future
E183.5v - Dreams of a King, Searching for Answers, Joseph Interprets Pharaoh's Dreams, A Powerful Post
E183.5v - Dreams of a King, Searching for Answers, Joseph Interprets Pharaoh's Dreams, A Powerful Post
E183.6r - An Ironic Turn of Events, A Bounty, Tricks and Accusations
E183.6r - An Ironic Turn of Events, A Bounty, Tricks and Accusations
E183.6v - A Reunion, A Family Feast, Good News, A Blessing for Pharaoh
E183.6v - A Reunion, A Family Feast, Good News, A Blessing for Pharaoh
E183.7r - Blessings for the Future, Jacob's Last Words, Joseph's Last Prediction, Enslavement
E183.7r - Blessings for the Future, Jacob's Last Words, Joseph's Last Prediction, Enslavement
E183.7v - A Single Escapee, Moses, The Lord calls to Moses, The Deliverer
E183.7v - A Single Escapee, Moses, The Lord calls to Moses, The Deliverer
E183.8r - Divine Demands, The Nile Turned to Blood, Amphibian Assault, Vermin
E183.8r - Divine Demands, The Nile Turned to Blood, Amphibian Assault, Vermin
E183.8v - The Egyptian Cattle Slain, Hail and Locusts, Passover, Deliverance
E183.8v - The Egyptian Cattle Slain, Hail and Locusts, Passover, Deliverance
E183.9r - Divine Vengeance, A Joyful Celebration, Bitter Waters
E183.9r - Divine Vengeance, A Joyful Celebration, Bitter Waters
E183.9v - Sweetener, Manna, The Lord Provides, Joshua, a Soldier
E183.9v - Sweetener, Manna, The Lord Provides, Joshua, a Soldier
E183.10r - Joshua Defeated at Ai, A Costly Transgression Revealed, Achan Stoned
E183.10r - Joshua Defeated at Ai, A Costly Transgression Revealed, Achan Stoned
E183.10v - Victory at Ai, A Treaty
E183.10v - Victory at Ai, A Treaty
E183.11r - The Longest Day, Israel's Enemies Humiliated
E183.11r - The Longest Day, Israel's Enemies Humiliated
E183.11v - An Execution, Joshua's Final Commands, Joshua's Passing
E183.11v - An Execution, Joshua's Final Commands, Joshua's Passing
E183.12r -  Ehud, a Clever Leader, Deborah, a Prophetess
E183.12r - Ehud, a Clever Leader, Deborah, a Prophetess
E183.12v -  Jael, a Heroine, Gideon, Most Valiant of Men, A Sacrifice and a Sign
E183.12v - Jael, a Heroine, Gideon, Most Valiant of Men, A Sacrifice and a Sign
E183.13r -  Baal's Altar Destroyed, The Sign of the Fleece, Gideon's Valiant Three Hundred
E183.13r - Baal's Altar Destroyed, The Sign of the Fleece, Gideon's Valiant Three Hundred
E183.13v - Jephthah's Despair, Mourning in the Mountains, Victory's Awful Price, A Treacherous Ascent
E183.13v - Jephthah's Despair, Mourning in the Mountains, Victory's Awful Price, A Treacherous Ascent
E183.14r - Just Desserts, Divine Favor, A Thanksgiving, Samson, Mightiest of Men
E183.14r - Just Desserts, Divine Favor, A Thanksgiving, Samson, Mightiest of Men
E183.14v - The Philistines Outfoxed, Samson's Surrender, One against a Thousand
E183.14v - The Philistines Outfoxed, Samson's Surrender, One against a Thousand
E183.15r - Parched, The Gates of Gaza, Shear Betrayal, Samson Blinded
E183.15r - Parched, The Gates of Gaza, Shear Betrayal, Samson Blinded
E183.15v - Samson in Prison, Retribution, Moving Day, A Kindly Host
E183.15v - Samson in Prison, Retribution, Moving Day, A Kindly Host
E183.16r - Hospitality, Reprehensible Demands, Gibeah's Crime, Death of the Levite's Wife
E183.16r - Hospitality, Reprehensible Demands, Gibeah's Crime, Death of the Levite's Wife
E183.16v - A Sorrowful Homecoming, A Grisly Message, Civil War
E183.16v - A Sorrowful Homecoming, A Grisly Message, Civil War
E183.17r - Wives for the Benjamites, Ruth, a Loyal Daughter
E183.17r - Wives for the Benjamites, Ruth, a Loyal Daughter
E183.17v - Ruth Meets Boaz, Ruth Eats with Boaz and the Workmen, Stacking Barley
E183.17v - Ruth Meets Boaz, Ruth Eats with Boaz and the Workmen, Stacking Barley
E183.18r - A Successful Day, Naomi's Counsel, Boaz Compromised
E183.18r - A Successful Day, Naomi's Counsel, Boaz Compromised
E183.18v - Boaz Must Send Ruth away, A Settlement
E183.18v - Boaz Must Send Ruth away, A Settlement
E183.19r - A Happy Ending, Journey to Shiloh
E183.19r - A Happy Ending, Journey to Shiloh
E183.19v - Hannah's Grief, Hannah's Prayer, The Road Home, Samuel
E183.19v - Hannah's Grief, Hannah's Prayer, The Road Home, Samuel
E183.20r - Hannah Honors her Vow, Recreant Priests
E183.20r - Hannah Honors her Vow, Recreant Priests
E183.20v - God Calls to Samuel, Destined for Defeat
E183.20v - God Calls to Samuel, Destined for Defeat
E183.21r - Samuel's Prophecy Fulfilled, All is Lost, Eli's Death, Dagon Dismembered
E183.21r - Samuel's Prophecy Fulfilled, All is Lost, Eli's Death, Dagon Dismembered
E183.21v - Plague in Ashdod, A Trespass Offering, The Ark in Beth Shemesh, A Burnt Offering
E183.21v - Plague in Ashdod, A Trespass Offering, The Ark in Beth Shemesh, A Burnt Offering
E183.22r - Repentance, Samuel's Sacrifice Assures Victory
E183.22r - Repentance, Samuel's Sacrifice Assures Victory
E183.22v - King Maker, Saul, the Lord's Anointed,
E183.22v - King Maker, Saul, the Lord's Anointed, "Is Saul Also among the Prophets?", Saul, King of Israel
E183.23r - A Plea for Help, Marshaling Forces
E183.23r - A Plea for Help, Marshaling Forces
E183.23v - Saul Victorious, A Proven Leader
E183.23v - Saul Victorious, A Proven Leader
E183.24r - Jonathan, a Prince, The Battle is joined
E183.24r - Jonathan, a Prince, The Battle is joined
E183.24v - Unbalanced by Rage, A Royal Insubordinate
E183.24v - Unbalanced by Rage, A Royal Insubordinate
E183.25r - The Lord's Remorse, The Kingdom Torn from Saul, Samuel Enforces the Lord's Will
E183.25r - The Lord's Remorse, The Kingdom Torn from Saul, Samuel Enforces the Lord's Will
E183.25v - Samuel's Grief, Samuel Arrives in Bethlehem, David, a New Hope
E183.25v - Samuel's Grief, Samuel Arrives in Bethlehem, David, a New Hope
E183.26r - David Anointed, An Evil Spirit Troubles Saul
E183.26r - David Anointed, An Evil Spirit Troubles Saul
E183.26v - David Meets Saul, Soothing Music
E183.26v - David Meets Saul, Soothing Music
E183.27r - Goliath, A Father's Concern, David Entrusts Jesse's Flock to Another
E183.27r - Goliath, A Father's Concern, David Entrusts Jesse's Flock to Another
E183.27v - The War Effort, David Determined
E183.27v - The War Effort, David Determined
E183.28r - David Petitions Saul, David Armed for the Combat, David Removes the Armor
E183.28r - David Petitions Saul, David Armed for the Combat, David Removes the Armor
E183.28v - David Slays Goliath, David's Vow to Saul Fulfilled
E183.28v - David Slays Goliath, David's Vow to Saul Fulfilled
E183.29r - Saul's Envy, Madness, A Dangerous Post
E183.29r - Saul's Envy, Madness, A Dangerous Post
E183.29v - Michal's Dowry, A Bloody Struggle
E183.29v - Michal's Dowry, A Bloody Struggle
E183.30r - Well Ahead, David and Michal Wedded, Saul Orders David's Assassination, Jonathan warns David
E183.30r - Well Ahead, David and Michal Wedded, Saul Orders David's Assassination, Jonathan warns David
E183.30v - Jonathan Brokers Peace, The War Resumes, Saul's Rage, A Second Assassination Attempt
E183.30v - Jonathan Brokers Peace, The War Resumes, Saul's Rage, A Second Assassination Attempt
E183.31r - Michal Delays the Soldiers, A Trusted Friend, Saul Learns of David's Whereabouts, Saul's Officers Struck by the Spirit of the Lord
E183.31r - Michal Delays the Soldiers, A Trusted Friend, Saul Learns of David's Whereabouts, Saul's Officers Struck by the Spirit of the Lord
E183.31v - Once More among the Prophets, Jonathan Consoles David, Sharp Words
E183.31v - Once More among the Prophets, Jonathan Consoles David, Sharp Words
E183.32r - A Tearful Farewell, Ahimelech Provisions David, David Feigns Madness
E183.32r - A Tearful Farewell, Ahimelech Provisions David, David Feigns Madness
E183.32v - A Massing of Malcontents, Ahimelech Executed
E183.32v - A Massing of Malcontents, Ahimelech Executed
E183.33r - Keilah Liberated, Retreat, Royal Repose
E183.33r - Keilah Liberated, Retreat, Royal Repose
E183.33v - Abigail Cools David's Wrath, Nabal Terrified, Nabal's Death
E183.33v - Abigail Cools David's Wrath, Nabal Terrified, Nabal's Death
E183.34r - David Spares Saul a Second Time, Kidnapped
E183.34r - David Spares Saul a Second Time, Kidnapped
E183.34v - Slaughter of the Amalekites, Saul's Last Stand
E183.34v - Slaughter of the Amalekites, Saul's Last Stand
E183.35r - Spoils of War, Saul Decapitated, Trophies, A Grisly Parade
E183.35r - Spoils of War, Saul Decapitated, Trophies, A Grisly Parade
E183.35v - The Final Indignity, A Doleful Task, A Funeral Pyre, Sad Tidings
E183.35v - The Final Indignity, A Doleful Task, A Funeral Pyre, Sad Tidings
E183.36r - David's Response, David Anointed King of Judah, Ishbosheth Made King of Israel
E183.36r - David's Response, David Anointed King of Judah, Ishbosheth Made King of Israel
E183.36v - Israel and Judah at War, Joab's Brother Slain
E183.36v - Israel and Judah at War, Joab's Brother Slain
E183.37r - Abner Revolts, David's Demand, Abner Takes Michal from Her Husband, Michal Returned to David
E183.37r - Abner Revolts, David's Demand, Abner Takes Michal from Her Husband, Michal Returned to David
E183.37v - David Feasts with Michal and Abner, Abner's Pledge to David, Joab Slays Abner, David Informed of Joab's Crime
E183.37v - David Feasts with Michal and Abner, Abner's Pledge to David, Joab Slays Abner, David Informed of Joab's Crime
E183.38r - A Stately Funeral, Rechab and Baanah, Traitors
E183.38r - A Stately Funeral, Rechab and Baanah, Traitors
E183.38v - The King is Displeased, The Tribes under One King, The Conquest of Jerusalem
E183.38v - The King is Displeased, The Tribes under One King, The Conquest of Jerusalem
E183.39r - Israel Triumphant, The Chariot of Abinadab
E183.39r - Israel Triumphant, The Chariot of Abinadab
E183.39v - David's Greatest Triumph, The Ark Enshrined in Jerusalem, David Blesses Israel
E183.39v - David's Greatest Triumph, The Ark Enshrined in Jerusalem, David Blesses Israel
E183.40r - Building Plans, David is Satisfied, Syria Subdued
E183.40r - Building Plans, David is Satisfied, Syria Subdued
E183.40v - David's Command to Ziba, David's Great Charity, Diplomacy, Shameful Treatment
E183.40v - David's Command to Ziba, David's Great Charity, Diplomacy, Shameful Treatment
E183.41r - David's Wrath, The Syrians Rally and Are Defeated
E183.41r - David's Wrath, The Syrians Rally and Are Defeated
E183.41v - David's Lust, Adutlery, Damage Control
E183.41v - David's Lust, Adutlery, Damage Control
E183.42r - Uriah Refuses to Return Home, Uriah is Slain
E183.42r - Uriah Refuses to Return Home, Uriah is Slain
E183.42v - Bathsheba is Informed of Uriah's Death, David Weds Bathsheba, A Son is Born, The Lord is Displeased with David
E183.42v - Bathsheba is Informed of Uriah's Death, David Weds Bathsheba, A Son is Born, The Lord is Displeased with David
E183.43r - Joab Reproaches David, David Greets the People, Sheba's Rebellion, Judah Remains Loyal
E183.43r - Joab Reproaches David, David Greets the People, Sheba's Rebellion, Judah Remains Loyal
E183.43v - E183.43v - David Orders the Destruction of Sheba, Joab Slays Amasa, Joab Brokers Peace
E183.43v - E183.43v - David Orders the Destruction of Sheba, Joab Slays Amasa, Joab Brokers Peace
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