The digital gallery

George Washington and the American Revolution, 1775-1776

Image ID: 228

228
Dot #: 1
Author: Tom Paper
Image ID: 228
Washington was tall for the 18th Century, powerfully built and a superb horseman.
1
Washington was tall for the 18th Century, powerfully built and a superb horseman.
1
Dot #: 2
Author: Tom Paper
Image ID: 228

Image here is of Charles Wilson Peale, painter of George Washington at Yorktown. Wikipedia

2

Image here is of Charles Wilson Peale, painter of George Washington at Yorktown. Wikipedia

2
Dot #: 3
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 228
This painting captures the confidence and iron will of General George Washington.
3
This painting captures the confidence and iron will of General George Washington.
3
Dot #: 4
Author: Tom Paper
Image ID: 228
The blue sash marks General Washington as the Commander in Chief of the Continental Army.
4
The blue sash marks General Washington as the Commander in Chief of the Continental Army.
4
Image 1 of 37
E40 - Portrait of George Washington


In the aftermath of the French and Indian War (1754-1763) , American colonists believed they deserved greater political freedoms from the British government, but King George III and his ministers faced a heavy war debt and were intent on levying new taxes on the colonists. Political leaders in North America raised new issues dealing with inequality of powers, individual freedom, separation of church and state, and political rights. Painting by Charles Willson Peale. / Image courtesy of Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art.

Wikipedia image from Crystal Bridges

IMCoS article by Ron Gibbs

Image ID: 224

224
Dot #: 1
Author: Tom Paper
Image ID: 224

On Charlestown peninsula, on June 17, 1775, the bloody battle of Bunker Hill was fought.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bunker_Hil...

1

On Charlestown peninsula, on June 17, 1775, the bloody battle of Bunker Hill was fought.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bunker_Hil...

1
Dot #: 2
Author: Tom Paper
Image ID: 224

Here in Lexington on April 19, 1775, the shot "heard 'round the world" was fired. To the west is the town of Concord, where, later that day, the British expedition fought the American militia. The British column retreated to Boston and sustained heavy casualties from the harassing Americans. wikipedia / image

2

Here in Lexington on April 19, 1775, the shot "heard 'round the world" was fired. To the west is the town of Concord, where, later that day, the British expedition fought the American militia. The British column retreated to Boston and sustained heavy casualties from the harassing Americans. wikipedia / image

2
Dot #: 3
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 224
The Town of Concord
3
The Town of Concord
3
Dot #: 4
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 224

60012640773fa.jpg

Cartouche depicting the landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth in 1620 (MDCXX on rock)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plymouth_Rock

4

60012640773fa.jpg

Cartouche depicting the landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth in 1620 (MDCXX on rock)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plymouth_Rock

4
Dot #: 5
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 224
Inset map of Boston Harbor showing the Town of Boston as a peninsula
5
Inset map of Boston Harbor showing the Town of Boston as a peninsula
5
Image 2 of 37
1774 New England


After 12 years of political struggle, the War of the American Revolution began in New England in early spring, 1775. As punishment for the Boston Tea Party (December, 1773), the British began to quarter Redcoat regiments in the town of Boston. This handsome map by Thomas Jeffreys, Geographer to the King, was printed in 1774 and shows southern New England and surrounding areas. In the right, there is a lovely cartouche depicting the landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth Rock in 1620, and next to it is an inset of Boston Harbor. In upper right portion of the main map, there is Boston Harbor and just to the west are the villages of Lexington and Concord. Map published by Thomas Jefferys / Image courtesy of David Rumsey Collection © 2000 by Cartography Associates.

Rumsey

Image ID: 209

209
Dot #: 1
Author: Tom Paper
Image ID: 209
In 1775, the town of Boston was on a peninsula connected by a narrow neck to the mainland.
1
In 1775, the town of Boston was on a peninsula connected by a narrow neck to the mainland.
1
Dot #: 2
Author: Tom Paper
Image ID: 209
Here on Charlestown peninsula in June 1775, the American army constructed fortifications from which they could bombard the British in the town of Boston.
2
Here on Charlestown peninsula in June 1775, the American army constructed fortifications from which they could bombard the British in the town of Boston.
2
Dot #: 3
Author: Tom Paper
Image ID: 209

Thinking Dorchester Hill was not surmountable, the British left this position undefended. In March 1776, Washington surprised the British by taking and fortifying Dorchester Hill. From these heights American canon threatened the British in Boston and forced them to evacuate the town by ship on March 17, 1776. Today that is known in Boston as "Evacuation Day." wikipedia

3

Thinking Dorchester Hill was not surmountable, the British left this position undefended. In March 1776, Washington surprised the British by taking and fortifying Dorchester Hill. From these heights American canon threatened the British in Boston and forced them to evacuate the town by ship on March 17, 1776. Today that is known in Boston as "Evacuation Day." wikipedia

3
Dot #: 4
Author: Tom Paper
Image ID: 209
The British attacked and ultimately drove the Americans from these positions in the bloody Battle of Bunker Hill on June 17, 1775.
4
The British attacked and ultimately drove the Americans from these positions in the bloody Battle of Bunker Hill on June 17, 1775.
4
Image 3 of 37
1775 Boston Harbor


This charming map was based upon the observations of a British military engineer, Lt. Page, and was printed in 1775, after the battles at Lexington and Concord on April 19. As shown on the map, the British Army held Boston, then a town on a peninsula of 10,000 population, and the powerful Royal Navy controlled the harbor and rivers, but the Continental Army built fortifications (“Rebel Works”) to surround the British. Note hamlet of Charlestown across the river to north of Boston and "Dorchester Hill" to the south. Map author Thomas Hyde, 1775. / Image courtesy of Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center.

Leventhal

Image ID: 210

210
Dot #: 1
Author: Tom Paper
Image ID: 210
While the British army in Boston prepared for the attack on Bunker Hill, Royal Navy ships fired upon the American positions.
1
While the British army in Boston prepared for the attack on Bunker Hill, Royal Navy ships fired upon the American positions.
1
Dot #: 2
Author: Tom Paper
Image ID: 210
The British forces were ferried from Boston to Charlestown peninsula and formed here for the first attack on Bunker Hill.
2
The British forces were ferried from Boston to Charlestown peninsula and formed here for the first attack on Bunker Hill.
2
Dot #: 3
Author: Tom Paper
Image ID: 210
At great cost of killed and wounded, the British ultimately captured the American fortification on their third attempt. The Americans retreated across Charlestown Neck.
3
At great cost of killed and wounded, the British ultimately captured the American fortification on their third attempt. The Americans retreated across Charlestown Neck.
3
Dot #: 4
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 210
Charlestown Neck, the retreat route of the Americans
4
Charlestown Neck, the retreat route of the Americans
4
Dot #: 5
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 210
The American earthworks, labeled "Warren's Redoubt," after citizen-soldier-physician Joseph Warren, who was killed at the battle.
5
The American earthworks, labeled "Warren's Redoubt," after citizen-soldier-physician Joseph Warren, who was killed at the battle.
5
Image 4 of 37
1775 Breeds Hill

On morning of June 17th, 1775, the British awoke to find that the Americans had fortified a new position across the river, above Charleston. From these positions, American cannon threatened the British in Boston, and the British had to dislodge the Americans. As shown in the 1797 version of map, British ships opened fire on the American positions while British troops were ferried to the beaches below the American positions. Determined American militia beat back two attacks by the British, who suffered heavy casualties. Then, with American ammunition depleted, a third British assault finally routed the Americans. George Washington arrived in Boston to take command in July, and throughout the fall and most of the winter 1775-1776, there was stalemate, but in March 1776, Washington brilliantly took advantage of a British oversight. He fortified Dorchester Heights (see previous map) and forced the British to evacuate on March 17, 1776, sailing off to Halifax, Nova Scotia. Published by C. Smith 1797. / Image courtesy of Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center.

Leventhal

Image ID: 3362

3362
Image 5 of 37
E40 - The Death of General Warren

Image ID: 3361

3361
Image 6 of 37
E40 - Evacuation Day Boston

Image ID: 211

211
Dot #: 1
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 211
In New York City, there was a population of 20,000 in summer 1776. The pin marks the intersection of Wall Street and Broadway.
1
In New York City, there was a population of 20,000 in summer 1776. The pin marks the intersection of Wall Street and Broadway.
1
Dot #: 2
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 211
View of New York harbor as seen from Governor's Island (see next dot)
2
View of New York harbor as seen from Governor's Island (see next dot)
2
Dot #: 3
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 211
Point on Governor's Island from which view at bottom of map is seen.
3
Point on Governor's Island from which view at bottom of map is seen.
3
Dot #: 4
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 211
Kipp's Bay (shown as "Keps Bay" on map) is the point where the British invaded Manhattan on Sunday morning, September 15, 1776.
4
Kipp's Bay (shown as "Keps Bay" on map) is the point where the British invaded Manhattan on Sunday morning, September 15, 1776.
4
Dot #: 5
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 211
"Newtown Inlet" (Newtown Creek) where British forces formed prior to amphibious attack at Kip's Bay
5
"Newtown Inlet" (Newtown Creek) where British forces formed prior to amphibious attack at Kip's Bay
5
Image 7 of 37
1776 City of New York - Bernard Ratzer

Washington knew that the British would have to return, and he reasoned that the most likely target would be New York City. As shown in this iconic map by British Lt. Bernard Ratzer, surveyed in 1767 and printed in 1776, the geography of New York was favorable for His Majesty’s Forces. At the bottom of the map, there is a magnificent view of what it was like to sail into the harbor in the late 18th Century. New York City was on Manhattan Island, and the network of the Hudson and East Rivers and New York Bay was easily controlled by the Royal Navy. The British could decide where and when to attack! Control of New York would separate the rebellious New England colonies from the Middle and Southern colonies. Further, New York with its population of 20,000 was second in size only to Philadelphia among cities in North America, and New York had many Loyalists.

Beginning in spring 1776, Washington began to move his army from Boston to New York and await the enemy. In late July, American hearts sank as they witnessed the British fleet sail into New York Bay. It had over 100 ships—the largest fleet ever sent to American waters—and carrying 30,000 British troops and German mercenaries. Washington’s army peaked at less than 20,000, but most were raw, unproved militia. Map surveyed by Bernard Ratzer in 1766 and 1767. Map engraved by Thomas Kitchin and published by Jefferys and Faden in 1776. / Image courtesy of The Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs: Print Collection, The New York Public Library.

NYPL

Image ID: 3363

3363
Image 8 of 37
E40 - General Howe

Now the British Army is under command of General William Howe, who led the attack on Bunker Hill. The Royal Navy is under command of his brother, Admiral Richard Howe, called Black Dick by his men, owing to his swarthy complexion.

The Brothers Howe disembark the army at Staten Island to refit after the long voyage from NOVA SCOTIA . It is late July, 1776. Just a few weeks ago- on July 4- the members of the Continental Congress signed the Declaration of Independence from England- but now the cause of independences faces a grave threat.

GENERAL HOWE is a VETERAN COMMANDER, SUPERB TACTITIAN, AND WISE TO WAR IN NORTH AMERICA. BUT, HE LIKES AMERICANS, IS TRYING TO END THE REBELLION WITH MINIMAL BLOODSHED, AND ULTIMATELY LETS OPPORTUNITIES SLIP THROUGH HIS FINGERS.

Image ID: 212

212
Dot #: 1
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 212
Fort George and Gun Batteries
1
Fort George and Gun Batteries
1
Dot #: 2
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 212
Trinity Church
2
Trinity Church
2
Dot #: 3
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 212
Fish market
3
Fish market
3
Dot #: 4
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 212
Barracks
4
Barracks
4
Dot #: 5
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 212
Synagogue
5
Synagogue
5
Dot #: 6
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 212
The Exchange
6
The Exchange
6
Dot #: 7
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 212
Guide ("References") the landmarks in the city
7
Guide ("References") the landmarks in the city
7
Image 9 of 37
1773 - Ratzer Lower Manhattan

Also surveyed in 1767 by Lt. Ratzer, this map shows New York City in detail. It was a city of commerce, and for the late 18th Century it was a tolerant, bustling, and diverse city. It had already been said that New Yorkers spoke “very fast, very loud and all at once.” The North or Hudson River is shown to the left of the city and the East or South River to the right. Some streets including Wall Street and Broadway have kept their names through today. The rest of Manhattan Island remained largely wooded with farms and mansions spaced throughout. Across the East River, there is “Part of Long or Nassau Island,” today this is Brooklyn. Map surveyed by Bernard Ratzer. Published by Kitchin / Jefferys and Faden in 1776. / Image courtesy of Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division.

Library of Congress

Image ID: 227

227
Dot #: 1
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 227
Staten Island where the British Forces landed in late July and rested after their long voyages from Europe and Canada. Here they prepared for the attack on the American positions on Long Island.
1
Staten Island where the British Forces landed in late July and rested after their long voyages from Europe and Canada. Here they prepared for the attack on the American positions on Long Island.
1
Dot #: 2
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 227
Landing of British at Long Island, Gravesend Bay on August 22, 1776. The Americans, confident in the strength of their inland positions , did not contest the landing.
2
Landing of British at Long Island, Gravesend Bay on August 22, 1776. The Americans, confident in the strength of their inland positions , did not contest the landing.
2
Dot #: 3
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 227
Frontal attack by Hessian and British forces on American positions on Heights of Guana, Morning August 27. This attack was merely a feint for the main British column was on a wide flanking maneuver to catch the Americans in a deadly trap.
3
Frontal attack by Hessian and British forces on American positions on Heights of Guana, Morning August 27. This attack was merely a feint for the main British column was on a wide flanking maneuver to catch the Americans in a deadly trap.
3
Dot #: 4
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 227
Route of British flanking movement
4
Route of British flanking movement
4
Dot #: 5
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 227
Retreat of Americans from positions on the heights to fortifications along the East River.
5
Retreat of Americans from positions on the heights to fortifications along the East River.
5
Dot #: 6
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 227
American fortifications along the East River.
6
American fortifications along the East River.
6
Dot #: 7
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 227
Evacuation point of American forces from Brooklyn to Manhattan under cover of dense fog, August 29.
7
Evacuation point of American forces from Brooklyn to Manhattan under cover of dense fog, August 29.
7
Dot #: 8
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 227
Attack of British at Kip's (Kepp's) Bay , Sunday , September 15
8
Attack of British at Kip's (Kepp's) Bay , Sunday , September 15
8
Dot #: 9
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 227
Washington's Headquarters at Morris Mansion in Harlem Heights in Northern Manhattan
9
Washington's Headquarters at Morris Mansion in Harlem Heights in Northern Manhattan
9
Dot #: 10
Author: tomadmin
Image ID: 227

American sunk vessels here to deter the British from sailing this far, landing troops here and splitting the American forces.

10

American sunk vessels here to deter the British from sailing this far, landing troops here and splitting the American forces.

10
Dot #: 11
Author: tomadmin
Image ID: 227

American sunk vessels here to deter the British from sailing this far, landing troops here and splitting the American forces.

11

American sunk vessels here to deter the British from sailing this far, landing troops here and splitting the American forces.

11
Image 10 of 37
1776 New York Campaign Map

This handsome map, by William Faden, Geographer to the King, shows rich topographical and tactical detail , covering the actions of August -September 1776. Note, for example, the British ships landing the troops on Long Island at Gravesend Bay (lower center) and also the landings at Kepp’s (Kip’s) Bay, located at mid-Manhattan (present day 34th Street) at the East River. / Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division.

Library of Congress

Image ID: 1968

1968
Image 11 of 37
E40 - 1776 Howe's War Plan

British General Howe's War Plan of 1776 - State #1

Library of Congress

Image ID: 2465

2465
Image 12 of 37
E40 - 1776 Howe's War Plan - State 5

Image ID: 3364

3364
Image 13 of 37
E40 - The Beach at Gravesend Bay

Here is Gravesend Bay today, showing broad beaches still perfect for the amphibious landing mad by the British in 1776.

Image ID: 213

213
Dot #: 1
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 213
Attack of General von Heister (Hessian troops) on the morning of August 27, 1776.
1
Attack of General von Heister (Hessian troops) on the morning of August 27, 1776.
1
Dot #: 2
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 213
American positions along East River.
2
American positions along East River.
2
Dot #: 3
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 213
Embarcation point for American retreat to Manhattan under cover of fog.
3
Embarcation point for American retreat to Manhattan under cover of fog.
3
Dot #: 4
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 213
Flanking movement of main British column, Aug 26-27, 1776.
4
Flanking movement of main British column, Aug 26-27, 1776.
4
Dot #: 5
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 213
Attack of General Grant (Brit.) on August 27, morning.
5
Attack of General Grant (Brit.) on August 27, morning.
5
Dot #: 6
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 213
American positions on Heights of Guana
6
American positions on Heights of Guana
6
Image 14 of 37
Battle of Brooklyn - General Grants Position

This map, published in 1794 in Stedman’s “History of the American War,” shows the early stage of the battle. The Americans took up two lines of defense, the front on the “Woody Heights” and a second in a series of positions closer to the East River. On the morning of August 27th, 1776, two British columns attacked the strong, barricaded American positions on the heights, but these were merely feints, as the main British column was on an all-night flanking march around the American left. See “Route of Sir Will. Howe’s Column.” The battle was a complete British victory with thousands of Americans captured , killed or wounded. Only a gallant stand on the American right wing prevented total collapse and disaster. The remnants of the American defenders limped back to the fortifications near the East River. / Image courtesy of David Rumsey Collection © 2000 by Cartography Associates.

Rumsey

Image ID: 214

214
Dot #: 1
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 214
Americans retreating across Gowanus Creek
1
Americans retreating across Gowanus Creek
1
Dot #: 2
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 214
The Old Stone House in center or the American Line.
2
The Old Stone House in center or the American Line.
2
Dot #: 3
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 214
American officer, possibly General Sterling
3
American officer, possibly General Sterling
3
Dot #: 4
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 214
The British Line advancing through the dense gunpowder smoke
4
The British Line advancing through the dense gunpowder smoke
4
Image 15 of 37
1776 Battle of Long Island

In this 1858 painting by Alonzo Chappel, we witness the scene of The Battle of Brooklyn. The defenders on the American right wing made their stand with a stone house as their center. The Old Stone House still stands today in Brooklyn next to a playground.

Image ID: 3365

3365
Image 16 of 37
E40 - The Old Stone House in Brooklyn

TODAY, THE OLD STONE HOUSE STILL STANDS ON BROOKLYN , AS A MUSEUM, ADJACENT TO A PLAYGROUND AND A SCHOOL NAMED FOR GENERAL WILLIAM ALEXANDER.

Image ID: 3366

3366
Image 17 of 37
E40 - A View of Gowanus Creek in Brooklyn

IT’S HARD TO PICTURE THE SWAMP AND GOWANUS CREEK OF 1776 , BUT THIS IS THE CREEK TODAY—PRETTY INDUSTRIALIZED, BUT UNDERGOING CLEANING UP IN BROOKLYN.

Image ID: 3367

3367
Image 18 of 37
E40 - A View of Manhattan from Brooklyn

AND THIS IS A MODERN VIEW OF MANHATTAN FROM BROOKLYN, SHOWING THE EVACUATION ROUTE—UNDER COVER OF FOG—TAKEN BY AMERICANS.

PIERS OF BROOKLYN IN FOREGROUND, LOWER MANHATTAN IN CENTER, AND IN FAR RIGHT BACKGROUND, WORLD TRADE CENTER.

Image ID: 217

217
Dot #: 1
Author: admin
Image ID: 217
The Cornfield, where General George Washington met the panicked American troops running from Kip's Bay. He was unable to rally his men and his aides de camp led him back to Harlem Heights.
1
The Cornfield, where General George Washington met the panicked American troops running from Kip's Bay. He was unable to rally his men and his aides de camp led him back to Harlem Heights.
1
Dot #: 2
Author: admin
Image ID: 217
Kip's Bay, point of British attack on Sunday, September 15, 1776.
2
Kip's Bay, point of British attack on Sunday, September 15, 1776.
2
Dot #: 3
Author: admin
Image ID: 217
Trinity Church. The first church on this location was built in 1698 and destroyed as a part of much larger fire on September 20th, 1776, which just days after Washington's retreat from New York. The second church was built in 1790 and destroyed by heavy snow during the winter of 1838 to 1839. The third church was built in 1846 and stands there today.
3
Trinity Church. The first church on this location was built in 1698 and destroyed as a part of much larger fire on September 20th, 1776, which just days after Washington's retreat from New York. The second church was built in 1790 and destroyed by heavy snow during the winter of 1838 to 1839. The third church was built in 1846 and stands there today.
3
Dot #: 4
Author: admin
Image ID: 217
Murray Mansion, where General Howe and his officers rested after their landing at Kip's Bay. The British troops halted nearby.
4
Murray Mansion, where General Howe and his officers rested after their landing at Kip's Bay. The British troops halted nearby.
4
Dot #: 5
Author: admin
Image ID: 217
Putnam's Retreat. While the British troops halted near Murray Mansion, General Putnam led his force of 5,000 from New York City, up the West side of Manhattan, to safety in Harlem Heights.
5
Putnam's Retreat. While the British troops halted near Murray Mansion, General Putnam led his force of 5,000 from New York City, up the West side of Manhattan, to safety in Harlem Heights.
5
Dot #: 6
Author: admin
Image ID: 217
Morris House, where General Washington had his headquarters in Harlem Heights from mid-September to mid-October, 1776.
6
Morris House, where General Washington had his headquarters in Harlem Heights from mid-September to mid-October, 1776.
6
Dot #: 7
Author: admin
Image ID: 217
Harlem Heights Battle. On Monday, September 16, 1776, the Americans probed the British lines on the south side of the Hollow Way. This developed into a full-scale battle with each side sending in reinforcements. Although the Americans pulled back to their defensive positions in Harlem Heights at the end of the day, they acquitted themselves well and made up for the rout the day before at Kip's Bay.
7
Harlem Heights Battle. On Monday, September 16, 1776, the Americans probed the British lines on the south side of the Hollow Way. This developed into a full-scale battle with each side sending in reinforcements. Although the Americans pulled back to their defensive positions in Harlem Heights at the end of the day, they acquitted themselves well and made up for the rout the day before at Kip's Bay.
7
Dot #: 8
Author: admin
Image ID: 217
Fort Washington, an extensive earthen redoubt, intended to prevent Royal Navy ships from sailing up the Hudson.
8
Fort Washington, an extensive earthen redoubt, intended to prevent Royal Navy ships from sailing up the Hudson.
8
Image 19 of 37
1878 Johnston Map of Manhattan in 1776

Compiled and drawn by Henry P. Johnston in 1878, this map shows, as of 1776, the full 14-mile length of Manhattan in rich topographic detail. South is to the left. Note the grid of New York City at the island’s southern tip, the British landing at Kip’s Bay, and the American fortifications in Harlem Heights. Fort Washington is in upper Manhattan and Fort Constitution, or Fort Lee, is directly across the Hudson River in New Jersey. / Image courtesy of Wikipedia and Geographicus.

Wikipedia

Geographicus

Image ID: 3368

3368
Image 20 of 37
E40 - A View from Kip's Bay Looking East

This photo, taken at the foot of 34th Street at the East River shows where the raw American militiamen were entrenched, looking into the East River at the Royal Navy ships. East RIVER IN MIDGROUND. BROOKLYN IN FAR GROUND.

Image ID: 3369

3369
Image 21 of 37
E40 - Plaque at the Site of Murray Mansion

THIS PLAQUE HAD MARKED THE SITE OF THE MURRAY MANSION.BUT AS FAR AS I CAN TELL , IT’S NO LONGER THERE.

LOCATION PARK AVE, BETWEEN ABOUT 36-38TH ST. Refers to “SUGNAL SERVICE “ OF MARY LINDLEY MURRAY…ENTERTAINING …GENL HOWE WITH REFRESHMENTS..

Image ID: 223

223
Dot #: 1
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 223
Fort Washington, an earthen structure, located on the heighest point in Manhattan. It was defended by 2500 men, but they were isolated and unsupported.
1
Fort Washington, an earthen structure, located on the heighest point in Manhattan. It was defended by 2500 men, but they were isolated and unsupported.
1
Dot #: 2
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 223
British attack from the south, November 16, 1776.
2
British attack from the south, November 16, 1776.
2
Dot #: 3
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 223
Hessian attack from the north.
3
Hessian attack from the north.
3
Dot #: 4
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 223
Amphibious landing by British and attack from Harlem River. The combined British-Hessian attacks led to the ignominious surrender of the fort in 5 hours. It was the greatest defeat the British handed the Americans in the Northern theater of the war.
4
Amphibious landing by British and attack from Harlem River. The combined British-Hessian attacks led to the ignominious surrender of the fort in 5 hours. It was the greatest defeat the British handed the Americans in the Northern theater of the war.
4
Dot #: 5
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 223
Fort Lee (formerly Fort Constitution) on New Jersey side of the Hudson River
5
Fort Lee (formerly Fort Constitution) on New Jersey side of the Hudson River
5
Image 22 of 37
1777 Fort Washington Map

In 1777, William Faden published this topographical map depicting the capture of Fort Washington in upper Manhattan by combined British-Hessian forces on November 16, 1776. Washington had left the fort with its 2500 men and extensive cache of arms to defend itself, thinking the fort could hold out for weeks. The main American army meanwhile had crossed the Hudson and safely made it to New Jersey. Three columns of British-Hessian forces took the fort in just 5 hours. One column attacked from the south of the fort, a second attacked from the north, and a third made an amphibious landing at Harlem Creek. The loss of Fort Washington was the worst disaster of the war for Washington! / Image courtesy of Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division.

Image ID: 219

219
Dot #: 1
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 219
Harlem Creek
1
Harlem Creek
1
Dot #: 2
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 219
British amphibious force landing northeast of Fort Washington.
2
British amphibious force landing northeast of Fort Washington.
2
Dot #: 3
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 219
View of New Jersey Pallisades and, just below it, a peek at the Hudson River
3
View of New Jersey Pallisades and, just below it, a peek at the Hudson River
3
Dot #: 4
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 219
In the distance is Fort Washington
4
In the distance is Fort Washington
4
Image 23 of 37
1776 View of Attack on Fort Washington

Captain Thomas Davies of the Royal Artillery drew this sketch which gives us a true feel of the British amphibious landing from flatboats and the attack on Fort Washington from the Harlem Creek. View is looking south down Harlem Creek (River) from the east bank, in what is now the Bronx. / Image courtesy of The Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs: Print Collection, The New York Public Library.

Image ID: 3370

3370
Image 24 of 37
E40 - Memorial at the Site of Fort Washington

ct

Image ID: 220

220
Dot #: 1
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 220
Location of Fort Lee, along the Hudson. Americans evacuated this fort when pressed by the British attack in November.
1
Location of Fort Lee, along the Hudson. Americans evacuated this fort when pressed by the British attack in November.
1
Dot #: 2
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 220
Washington retreated across New Jersey, desiring to get his army across the Delaware River and to safety in Pennsylvania. He crossed the Delaware here at Trenton, NJ.
2
Washington retreated across New Jersey, desiring to get his army across the Delaware River and to safety in Pennsylvania. He crossed the Delaware here at Trenton, NJ.
2
Dot #: 3
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 220
Philadelphia, the American capital, the largest city in North America, with population of 30,000.
3
Philadelphia, the American capital, the largest city in North America, with population of 30,000.
3
Dot #: 4
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 220
New York City, on southern tip of Manhattan
4
New York City, on southern tip of Manhattan
4
Dot #: 5
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 220
Location of Fort Ticonderoga, captured by the Americans in 1775
5
Location of Fort Ticonderoga, captured by the Americans in 1775
5
Image 25 of 37
1776 Holland Map of New York and New Jersey


This large map was drawn by the British Major Samuel Holland , Surveyor General, Northern District in America, and was printed by Robert Sayer and John Bennett in 1776. In late November and early December of 1776 the American Army was on the brink of disaster. They had lost every major battle and their forces were dwindling. Washington had no choice but to retreat from his position in Northern New Jersey and seek safety in Pennsylvania, but the British pursued him closely across New Jersey. Washington’s Army eluded the enemy and crossed into Pennsylvania at Trenton in early December 1776. Trenton is located on the map just north of the elbow of the Delaware River. To prevent the British from crossing the Delaware, American engineers destroyed bridges across the river and gathered all boats up and down the river. At least temporarily, Washington’s Army was safe and secure. The British and Hessians, thinking their American foe was beaten, went into winter quarters in a string of posts from the Delaware River back to New York. / Image courtesy of Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division.

Image ID: 222

222
Dot #: 1
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 222

Washington, the central figure, but he would never have stood so precariously in the crossing!

1

Washington, the central figure, but he would never have stood so precariously in the crossing!

1
Dot #: 2
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 222
The crossing was carried out in Durham boats which were used for river traffic and were much larger and more stable than the row boats depicted in Leutze's painting.
2
The crossing was carried out in Durham boats which were used for river traffic and were much larger and more stable than the row boats depicted in Leutze's painting.
2
Dot #: 3
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 222
The stars and stripes , depicted in the painting, did not make its first appearance until well into 1777.
3
The stars and stripes , depicted in the painting, did not make its first appearance until well into 1777.
3
Dot #: 4
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 222
The small boats would never have been able to transport horses and canon, as shown in the painting.
4
The small boats would never have been able to transport horses and canon, as shown in the painting.
4
Dot #: 5
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 222
The shoreline is that of Leutze's native Germany, not that of New Jersey above Trenton.
5
The shoreline is that of Leutze's native Germany, not that of New Jersey above Trenton.
5
Dot #: 6
Author: tomadmin
Image ID: 222

Example of a Durham boat.

5fe532ad0840c.jpg

6

Example of a Durham boat.

5fe532ad0840c.jpg

6
Image 26 of 37
1851 Emmanuel Leutze - Washington Crossing the Delaware

One of the most beloved and well-known artworks in American history, Emmanuel Leutze’s depiction of the heroic crossing was not painted until 75 years later. It contains many historical errors. Notably, the boats do not represent the actual Durham boats used in the crossing, and the flag was not developed until months later. Yet, the painting conjures up the decisiveness of Washington and the patriotism and courage of his men. Painting by Emmanuel Leutze in 1851. / Image courtesy of Smithsonian.

Image ID: 3371

3371
Image 27 of 37
E40 - A View of the Crossing Site from Pennsylvania

I TOOK THIS PHOTO OF WASHINGTON’S CROSSING FROM PA SIDE ON A BEAUTIFUL SPRING DAY, SEE THE RIVER ABOUT 300 YARDS WIDE.

Image ID: 3372

3372
Image 28 of 37
E40 - Re-enactment Showing the Durham Boat

AND if you wanted to know what the boats were really like, well, HERE ARE REPLICAS—THE DURHAM BOATS USED FOR TRAFFIC ON THE DELAWARE IN 18TH CENTURY. MUCH BIGGER THAN ROWBOATS,. Other craft were flat bottomed ferries that were probably used for CANNON & HORSES.

Image ID: 221

221
Dot #: 1
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 221
Trenton, NJ- Outpost of 1400 Hessians at end of the long line stretching from New York City.
1
Trenton, NJ- Outpost of 1400 Hessians at end of the long line stretching from New York City.
1
Dot #: 2
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 221
An American camp in Pennsylvania, centering around Newtown.
2
An American camp in Pennsylvania, centering around Newtown.
2
Dot #: 3
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 221
Washington crosses the Delaware River at McConkey's ferry, night of Dec 25-26, 1776.
3
Washington crosses the Delaware River at McConkey's ferry, night of Dec 25-26, 1776.
3
Dot #: 4
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 221
One American column under Ten. Washington and Greene approach Trenton along Pennington Road.
4
One American column under Ten. Washington and Greene approach Trenton along Pennington Road.
4
Dot #: 5
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 221
The other American column under General Sullivan approach from the River Road.
5
The other American column under General Sullivan approach from the River Road.
5
Dot #: 6
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 221
The two American columns converge on the Hessians simultaneously and rout the garrison in a battle lasting less than an hour.
6
The two American columns converge on the Hessians simultaneously and rout the garrison in a battle lasting less than an hour.
6
Dot #: 7
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 221
A week later, Washington gained another victory at Princeton, NJ. These two military successes saved the cause of American Independence. Washington showed battlefield genius. He had, indeed, made mistakes that year, but he learned. No matter how desperate the campaign had been, he responded with an iron will, bravery and determination.No one else could have done what General George Washington did in that fateful campaign of 1776.
7
A week later, Washington gained another victory at Princeton, NJ. These two military successes saved the cause of American Independence. Washington showed battlefield genius. He had, indeed, made mistakes that year, but he learned. No matter how desperate the campaign had been, he responded with an iron will, bravery and determination.No one else could have done what General George Washington did in that fateful campaign of 1776.
7
Image 29 of 37
1777 Trenton Map

This detailed battle map, published by Willam Faden in 1777, shows the heroic actions of the American forces from December 26, 1776 to January 3, 1777. After crossing the Delaware River into Pennsylvania, the Americans encamped near Newtown (center, left of map). With the integrity of his army at stake, Washington decided on the one course that would save the revolution; he would attack! He chose an isolated Hessian outpost in Trenton, at the very end of the British-Hessian line. On Christmas night 1776, the American Army crossed the Delaware River back into New Jersey at McKonkey’s Ferry (just northeast of Newtown on map). Then the army marched in two divisions, the left down the Pennington Road and the right down the River Road, to attack the Hessians. Catching the enemy by surprise, the result was an hour long battle leading to a small, but complete victory. The Hessian commander was killed, and over 1000 Hessians were taken prisoner. Washington then returned his army to its Pennsylvania encampment, but followed up with another victory a week later in Princeton, New Jersey (northeast of Trenton). The twin victories breathed new life into the cause of independence and led to recognition of Washington as a battlefield commander. The British knew they would now be in for a long struggle if they were to put down the American rebellion. / Image courtesy of Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division.

Image ID: 3373

3373
Image 30 of 37
E40 - Surrender at Trenton by John Trumbull

Wikipedia

IN ANOTHER OF THE FAMOUS JOHN TRUMBULL PAINTINGS, HERE DEPICTED IS WASHINGTON GLORIOUSLY TAKING THE SURRENDER OF THE HESSIANS AT TRENTON.

Image ID: 3374

3374
Image 31 of 37
E40 - Battle of Trenton Memorial

On that same lovely spring day, I took this photo of the battle monument in Trenton. Located at point where Americans entered Trenton from the north.

Image ID: 3375

3375
Image 32 of 37
E40 - Princeton Battlefield State Park

Today, Princeton Battlefield is a NJ State Park, with many interpretative placards and monuments.

Image ID: 3376

3376
Image 33 of 37
E40 - William Faden Cartographer by John Russell

TAKE a break to say a few words about William Faden (1749-1836), who was one of the most prominent London map makers and dealers of his time. By 1773, he had earned his position as a partner in the map firm of Jeffreys & Faden. In 1776, as the American War of Independence was taking shape, Faden became the sole owner of the business. His timing was perfect as the war created great demand in London for maps of North America, especially battle maps, and Faden’s reputation as a respected map maker and importer served him well. By the time the war ended in 1783, Faden received a royal appointment as Geographer to King George III .

Image ID: 229

229
Dot #: 1
Author: Tom Paper
Image ID: 229
George Washington is in the background because the British commander, General Cornwallis, feigned illness and sent his second in command, General O'Hara. Accordingly, Washington sent his second in command, General Benjamin Lincoln.
1
George Washington is in the background because the British commander, General Cornwallis, feigned illness and sent his second in command, General O'Hara. Accordingly, Washington sent his second in command, General Benjamin Lincoln.
1
Dot #: 2
Author: Tom Paper
Image ID: 229
General Charles O'Hara, second in command to General Cornwallis, offering surrender to General Lincoln.
2
General Charles O'Hara, second in command to General Cornwallis, offering surrender to General Lincoln.
2
Dot #: 3
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 229
General Benjamin Lincoln receiving the surrender of British General O'Hara
3
General Benjamin Lincoln receiving the surrender of British General O'Hara
3
Dot #: 4
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 229
Depicted in the ranks of American officers are: Col. Alexander Hamilton, who commanded the Light Infantry;General Henry Knox, Chief of Artillery; and General Anthony ("Mad Anthony") Wayne.
4
Depicted in the ranks of American officers are: Col. Alexander Hamilton, who commanded the Light Infantry;General Henry Knox, Chief of Artillery; and General Anthony ("Mad Anthony") Wayne.
4
Dot #: 5
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 229
Prominently depicted is General Rochambeau, the French Commander in Chief.
5
Prominently depicted is General Rochambeau, the French Commander in Chief.
5
Image 34 of 37
Surrender at Yorktown

During the Campaign of 1776, no matter what adversity Washington faced, he responded with bravery, an iron will, and determination. He inspired his troops and rallied them time after time. There was no one else in the American colonies who could have done what Washington did. The war would go on another seven years, climaxing with the joint French-American victory at Yorktown, Virginia in 1781. Washington is depicted in the painting center right on horseback. How, after all, did Washington win? He won because he and his men had a cause. He was fighting the right war—keeping his less-experienced army intact, winning just enough times, and gaining the aid of the French. The British Crown and British people had no stomach for more blood and more treasure. Reflecting over the last nearly 250 years, we remember that the entire future of our country hung by a mere thread in the critical months of late 1776 and very early 1777. If just one of several events had gone even a bit differently, imagine how the course of the United States may well have changed. And, indeed, in those five months, the destiny of our country rested heavily on the shoulders of one man, General George Washington. Painting by John Trumbull. / Image courtesy of Architect of the Capitol and Wikipedia.

Image ID: 2721

2721
Image 35 of 37
E40 - The Long Shot

Image ID: 216

216
Dot #: 1
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 216

Hell's gate

1

Hell's gate

1
Dot #: 2
Author: rgibbs
Image ID: 216

Gravesend Bay

2

Gravesend Bay

2
Image 36 of 37
Mt Vernon Map of The New York Campaign
In this modern map, we see the sweep on the British attack in summer-fall 1776, beginning with the landing on Long Island in late August 1776, the rout of the Americans at The Battle of Brooklyn, and the attack on Manhattan at Kip’s Bay on September 15, 1776. These were tactical victories for the British, resulting in the retreat of Washington to Harlem Heights in upper Manhattan. In October, the British carried out an amphibious flanking maneuver into Westchester County, requiring Washington to evacuate Harlem Heights and take up new positions above White Plains. However, the Americans left 2500 men and a huge stash of arms at Ft. Washington, in upper Manhattan. / Image courtesy of the Mount Vernon Ladies Association and mtvernon.org.

Image ID: 4055

4055
Dot #: 1
Author: tomadmin
Image ID: 4055

Approximate location of Fort Washington

1

Approximate location of Fort Washington

1
Image 37 of 37
E40 - 1776 New York Campaign Map CLONED

This handsome map, by William Faden, Geographer to the King, shows rich topographical and tactical detail , covering the actions of August -September 1776. Note, for example, the British ships landing the troops on Long Island at Gravesend Bay (lower center) and also the landings at Kepp’s (Kip’s) Bay, located at mid-Manhattan (present day 34th Street) at the East River. / Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division.

Library of Congress

Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
Dots OFF Dots ON
E40 - Portrait of George Washington
E40 - Portrait of George Washington
1774 New England
1774 New England
1775 Boston Harbor
1775 Boston Harbor
1775 Breeds Hill
1775 Breeds Hill
E40 - The Death of General Warren
E40 - The Death of General Warren
E40 - Evacuation Day Boston
E40 - Evacuation Day Boston
1776 City of New York - Bernard Ratzer
1776 City of New York - Bernard Ratzer
E40 - General Howe
E40 - General Howe
1773 - Ratzer Lower Manhattan
1773 - Ratzer Lower Manhattan
1776 New York Campaign Map
1776 New York Campaign Map
E40 - 1776 Howe's War Plan
E40 - 1776 Howe's War Plan
E40 - 1776 Howe's War Plan - State 5
E40 - 1776 Howe's War Plan - State 5
E40 - The Beach at Gravesend Bay
E40 - The Beach at Gravesend Bay
Battle of Brooklyn - General Grants Position
Battle of Brooklyn - General Grants Position
1776 Battle of Long Island
1776 Battle of Long Island
E40 - The Old Stone House in Brooklyn
E40 - The Old Stone House in Brooklyn
E40 - A View of Gowanus Creek in Brooklyn
E40 - A View of Gowanus Creek in Brooklyn
E40 - A View of Manhattan from Brooklyn
E40 - A View of Manhattan from Brooklyn
1878 Johnston Map of Manhattan in 1776
1878 Johnston Map of Manhattan in 1776
E40 - A View from Kip's Bay Looking East
E40 - A View from Kip's Bay Looking East
E40 - Plaque at the Site of Murray Mansion
E40 - Plaque at the Site of Murray Mansion
1777 Fort Washington Map
1777 Fort Washington Map
1776 View of Attack on Fort Washington
1776 View of Attack on Fort Washington
E40 - Memorial at the Site of Fort Washington
E40 - Memorial at the Site of Fort Washington
1776 Holland Map of New York and New Jersey
1776 Holland Map of New York and New Jersey
    1851 Emmanuel Leutze - Washington Crossing the Delaware
1851 Emmanuel Leutze - Washington Crossing the Delaware
E40 - A View of the Crossing Site from Pennsylvania
E40 - A View of the Crossing Site from Pennsylvania
E40 - Re-enactment Showing the Durham Boat
E40 - Re-enactment Showing the Durham Boat
1777 Trenton Map
1777 Trenton Map
E40 - Surrender at Trenton by John Trumbull
E40 - Surrender at Trenton by John Trumbull
E40 - Battle of Trenton Memorial
E40 - Battle of Trenton Memorial
E40 - Princeton Battlefield State Park
E40 - Princeton Battlefield State Park
E40 - William Faden Cartographer by John Russell
E40 - William Faden Cartographer by John Russell
Surrender at Yorktown
Surrender at Yorktown
E40 - The Long Shot
E40 - The Long Shot
Mt Vernon Map of The New York Campaign
Mt Vernon Map of The New York Campaign
E40 - 1776 New York Campaign Map CLONED
E40 - 1776 New York Campaign Map CLONED