The digital gallery

Vuillemin Atlas of 1861

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E98 - Title Page: Atlas illustre de geographie commerciale et industrielle

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E98 - Title Page: Atlas illustre de geographie commerciale et industrielle
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E98 - Pl. 1. Planisphere : Elementaire et Illustre

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Author: tomadmin
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America bought Alaska from Russia in 1867 for $2 million.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alaska_Purchase


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America bought Alaska from Russia in 1867 for $2 million.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alaska_Purchase


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E98 - Pl. 1. Planisphere : Elementaire et Illustre
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E98 - Pl. 15. Nouvelle carte illustree de l'Amerique du Nord

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Author: tomadmin
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"Railway" is Chemin de Fer in French. See red lines on map, primarily along the East coast of the United State.

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"Railway" is Chemin de Fer in French. See red lines on map, primarily along the East coast of the United State.

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Author: tomadmin
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America did not buy Alaska until 1867. Wikipedia

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America did not buy Alaska until 1867. Wikipedia

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Author: tomadmin
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I find it curious that not one of these vignettes is dedicated the "civilized" or Western populations that no doubt were significant in North America in 1861. No images of New York, Philadelphia, Washington DC.

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I find it curious that not one of these vignettes is dedicated the "civilized" or Western populations that no doubt were significant in North America in 1861. No images of New York, Philadelphia, Washington DC.

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E98 - Pl. 15. Nouvelle carte illustree de l'Amerique du Nord
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E98 - Pl. 16. Nouvelle carte illustree de l'Amerique du Sud

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Author: Nikola2012
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The Conquest of the Desert was an Argentine military campaign directed mainly by General Julio Argentino Roca in the 1870s with the intention of establishing dominance over the Patagonian Desert, inhabited primarily by indigenous peoples. Under General Roca, the Conquest of the Desert extended Argentine power into Patagonia.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conquest_of_the_Desert

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The Conquest of the Desert was an Argentine military campaign directed mainly by General Julio Argentino Roca in the 1870s with the intention of establishing dominance over the Patagonian Desert, inhabited primarily by indigenous peoples. Under General Roca, the Conquest of the Desert extended Argentine power into Patagonia.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conquest_of_the_Desert

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Author: Nikola2012
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There were three Guianas that existed in the 19th century, the British Guiana, Dutch Guiana and French Guiana. Only one existing today as an overseas part of the French state is French Guiana.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Guianas

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There were three Guianas that existed in the 19th century, the British Guiana, Dutch Guiana and French Guiana. Only one existing today as an overseas part of the French state is French Guiana.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Guianas

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Author: Nikola2012
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The Republic of New Granada, with its capital at Bogotá, lasted from 1831 to 1856.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic_of_New_Granada

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The Republic of New Granada, with its capital at Bogotá, lasted from 1831 to 1856.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic_of_New_Granada

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E98 - Pl. 16. Nouvelle carte illustree de l'Amerique du Sud
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E98 - Text: Introduction

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E98 - Text: Introduction
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E98 - Text: (Continues) Introduction. Carte composant l'atlas de geographie commercile ...

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E98 - Text: (Continues) Introduction. Carte composant l'atlas de geographie commercile ...
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E98 - Pl. 2. Nouvelle carte illustree de l'Europe

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Author: Nikola2012
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‘Limite de la culture de l’ Olivier’ and ‘Limite de la culture de l’ Oranger’ are lines that represent the northern boundary of the cultivation of Olives and Oranges trees.

https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olivier

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‘Limite de la culture de l’ Olivier’ and ‘Limite de la culture de l’ Oranger’ are lines that represent the northern boundary of the cultivation of Olives and Oranges trees.

https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olivier

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Author: Nikola2012
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The Unification of Germany into the German Empire, a Prussia-dominated nation state with federal features, officially occurred on 18 January 1871 at the Versailles Palace's Hall of Mirrors in France. Princes of the German states gathered there to proclaim Wilhelm of Prussia as Emperor of the German Empire after the French capitulation in the Franco-Prussian War. Before that German-speaking Central Europe included more than 300 political entities.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unification_of_Germa...

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The Unification of Germany into the German Empire, a Prussia-dominated nation state with federal features, officially occurred on 18 January 1871 at the Versailles Palace's Hall of Mirrors in France. Princes of the German states gathered there to proclaim Wilhelm of Prussia as Emperor of the German Empire after the French capitulation in the Franco-Prussian War. Before that German-speaking Central Europe included more than 300 political entities.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unification_of_Germa...

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Author: Nikola2012
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In the 19th century, the process of the decline of Ottoman empire was continuously and then gradually the condition of Turkey became so bad that it came to be called 'sick man of Europe'.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sick_man_of_Europe

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In the 19th century, the process of the decline of Ottoman empire was continuously and then gradually the condition of Turkey became so bad that it came to be called 'sick man of Europe'.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sick_man_of_Europe

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E98 - Pl. 2. Nouvelle carte illustree de l'Europe
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E98 - Pl. 3. Nouvelle carte illustree de la France

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Author: Nikola2012
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In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government under the national level, between the administrative regions and the communes. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, and five are overseas departments, which are also classified as overseas regions. The departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régimeprovinces with a view to strengthen national unity.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Departments_of_France

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In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government under the national level, between the administrative regions and the communes. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, and five are overseas departments, which are also classified as overseas regions. The departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régimeprovinces with a view to strengthen national unity.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Departments_of_France

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Napoleon Bonaparte was born on August 15, 1769, in Ajaccio, on the Mediterranean island of Corsica.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napoleon

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Napoleon Bonaparte was born on August 15, 1769, in Ajaccio, on the Mediterranean island of Corsica.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napoleon

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Author: Nikola2012
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Loire is a department in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes occupying the River Loire's upper reaches.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loire_(department)

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Loire is a department in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes occupying the River Loire's upper reaches.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loire_(department)

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E98 - Pl. 3. Nouvelle carte illustree de la France
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E98 - Pl. 4. Nouvelle Carte Illustrée des Royaumes de Hollande et the Belgique

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Netherlands literally means "lower countries" in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) above sea level, and nearly 26% falling below sea level.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Netherlands

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Netherlands literally means "lower countries" in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) above sea level, and nearly 26% falling below sea level.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Netherlands

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E98 - Pl. 4. Nouvelle Carte Illustrée des Royaumes de Hollande et the Belgique
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E98 - Pl. 5. Nouvelle Carte Illustree des Isles Britanniques

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At the time of publication of this atlas on the throne of the British Kingdom is Queen Victoria. Queen Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. Known as the Victorian era, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors. It was a period of industrial, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. In 1876, Parliament voted her the additional title of Empress of India.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Queen_Victoria

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At the time of publication of this atlas on the throne of the British Kingdom is Queen Victoria. Queen Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. Known as the Victorian era, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors. It was a period of industrial, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. In 1876, Parliament voted her the additional title of Empress of India.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Queen_Victoria

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E98 - Pl. 5. Nouvelle Carte Illustree des Isles Britanniques
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E98 - Pl. 6. Nouvelle Carte Illustree des etats de Nord de l'Europe donnant la Russie d'Europe

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The history of St.-Petersburg-Moscow railway began on 1842 when the emperor Nikolai I signed the decree on construction of the railway between St.-Petersburg and Moscow. A special Committee was established to conduct the works. Research and construction works had been conducted during 10 years and had required significant financial investments, original technical decisions, participation of many Russian and foreign experts and a great amount of manpower. In the railway construction had participated over 800 thousand workers, mostly from serves.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Petersburg%E2%80%93Moscow_railway

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The history of St.-Petersburg-Moscow railway began on 1842 when the emperor Nikolai I signed the decree on construction of the railway between St.-Petersburg and Moscow. A special Committee was established to conduct the works. Research and construction works had been conducted during 10 years and had required significant financial investments, original technical decisions, participation of many Russian and foreign experts and a great amount of manpower. In the railway construction had participated over 800 thousand workers, mostly from serves.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Petersburg%E2%80%93Moscow_railway

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Author: Nikola2012
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Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer who is regarded as one of the greatest authors of all time. Born to an aristocratic Russian family in 1828, Tolstoy is best known for the novels War and Peace (1869) and Anna Karenina (1878), often cited as pinnacles of realist fiction.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leo_Tolstoy

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Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer who is regarded as one of the greatest authors of all time. Born to an aristocratic Russian family in 1828, Tolstoy is best known for the novels War and Peace (1869) and Anna Karenina (1878), often cited as pinnacles of realist fiction.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leo_Tolstoy

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E98 - Pl. 6. Nouvelle Carte Illustree des etats de Nord de l'Europe donnant la Russie d'Europe
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E98 - Pl. 7. Nouvelle Carte Illustree de l'Allemagne

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The Kiel Canal, or Baltic see Canal, formerly known as the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Canal, is a 98-kilometre-long freshwater canal in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. The canal was finished in 1895, but later widened, and links the North Sea at Brunsbüttel to the Baltic Sea at Kiel-Holtenau.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kiel_Canal

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The Kiel Canal, or Baltic see Canal, formerly known as the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Canal, is a 98-kilometre-long freshwater canal in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. The canal was finished in 1895, but later widened, and links the North Sea at Brunsbüttel to the Baltic Sea at Kiel-Holtenau.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kiel_Canal

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Author: Nikola2012
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Nikola Tesla (1856 – 1943), born and raised in the Austrian Empire, was a Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, and futurist best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikola_Tesla

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Nikola Tesla (1856 – 1943), born and raised in the Austrian Empire, was a Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, and futurist best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikola_Tesla

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E98 - Pl. 7. Nouvelle Carte Illustree de l'Allemagne
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E98 - Pl. 8. Nouvelle Carte Illustree de la Suisse

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Patek Philippe SA is a Swiss luxury watch and clock manufacturer founded in 1839, located in Canton of Geneva Since 1932, it has been owned by the Stern family in Switzerland. Patek Philippe is one of the oldest watch manufacturers in the world with an uninterrupted watchmaking history since its founding.It designs and manufactures timepieces as well as movements, including some of the most complicated mechanical watches.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patek_Philippe_SA

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Patek Philippe SA is a Swiss luxury watch and clock manufacturer founded in 1839, located in Canton of Geneva Since 1932, it has been owned by the Stern family in Switzerland. Patek Philippe is one of the oldest watch manufacturers in the world with an uninterrupted watchmaking history since its founding.It designs and manufactures timepieces as well as movements, including some of the most complicated mechanical watches.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patek_Philippe_SA

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E98 - Pl. 8. Nouvelle Carte Illustree de la Suisse
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E98 - Pl. 9. Nouvelle Carte Illustree de l'Italie

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The Papal States, ‘Etat Pontifical”, officially the State of the Church, were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the pope from the 8th century until 1870.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papal_States

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The Papal States, ‘Etat Pontifical”, officially the State of the Church, were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the pope from the 8th century until 1870.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papal_States

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After centuries spent as one of the most powerful city-states Republic of Venice lost its independence when Napoleon Bonaparte conquered Venice 1797 during the War of the First Coalition. In 1866, after the Third Italian War of Independence, Venice, along with the rest of the Veneto, became part of the newly created Kingdom of Italy.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venice

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After centuries spent as one of the most powerful city-states Republic of Venice lost its independence when Napoleon Bonaparte conquered Venice 1797 during the War of the First Coalition. In 1866, after the Third Italian War of Independence, Venice, along with the rest of the Veneto, became part of the newly created Kingdom of Italy.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venice

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E98 - Pl. 9. Nouvelle Carte Illustree de l'Italie
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E98 - Pl. 10. Nouvelle Carte Illustree de L'Espagne et de Portugal

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La Mancha region is the birthplace of one of the most famous heroes of Spanish literature, Don Quixote, written by Miguel de Cervantes in the 17th century.

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La Mancha region is the birthplace of one of the most famous heroes of Spanish literature, Don Quixote, written by Miguel de Cervantes in the 17th century.

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Author: Nikola2012
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Catalonia is an autonomous community in the northeastern corner of Spain, The capital and largest city, Barcelona is the second-most populated municipality in Spain.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catalonia#Industrialisation,_Republic_and_autonomy.

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Catalonia is an autonomous community in the northeastern corner of Spain, The capital and largest city, Barcelona is the second-most populated municipality in Spain.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catalonia#Industrialisation,_Republic_and_autonomy.

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E98 - Pl. 10. Nouvelle Carte Illustree de L'Espagne et de Portugal
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E98 - Pl. 11. Nouvelle Carte Illustree de la de la Turquie d'Europe et de la Grece

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The formal independence of the Serbia, previously part of the Ottoman Empire, was internationally recognized at the Congress of Berlin in 1878, which ended the Russo-Turkish War 1877–1878.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serbia

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The formal independence of the Serbia, previously part of the Ottoman Empire, was internationally recognized at the Congress of Berlin in 1878, which ended the Russo-Turkish War 1877–1878.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serbia

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E98 - Pl. 11. Nouvelle Carte Illustree de la de la Turquie d'Europe et de la Grece
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E98 - Pl. 12. Nouvelle Carte Illustree de l'Asie

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The Opium Wars were two wars waged between Western powers and the Qing dynasty in the mid-19th century. The First Opium War, fought in 1839–1842 between Great Britain and the Qing Dynasty, was triggered by the Qing’s crackdown on British Opium smugglers. The Second Opium War was fought between Britain and France coalition against the Qing in 1856–1860. In each war, the European force's modern military technology led to an easy victory over the Qing forces, with the consequence that the government was compelled to grant favorable tariffs, trade concessions, and territory to the Europeans.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opium_Wars

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The Opium Wars were two wars waged between Western powers and the Qing dynasty in the mid-19th century. The First Opium War, fought in 1839–1842 between Great Britain and the Qing Dynasty, was triggered by the Qing’s crackdown on British Opium smugglers. The Second Opium War was fought between Britain and France coalition against the Qing in 1856–1860. In each war, the European force's modern military technology led to an easy victory over the Qing forces, with the consequence that the government was compelled to grant favorable tariffs, trade concessions, and territory to the Europeans.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opium_Wars

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Author: Nikola2012
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East India Company was an English and later British joint-stock company founded in 1600.[4] It was formed to trade in the Indian Ocean region, initially with the East Indies (the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia), and later with Qing China. The company seized control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent, colonised parts of Southeast Asia and Hong Kong after the First Opium War, and maintained trading posts and colonies in the Persian Gulf Residencies.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_India_Company

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East India Company was an English and later British joint-stock company founded in 1600.[4] It was formed to trade in the Indian Ocean region, initially with the East Indies (the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia), and later with Qing China. The company seized control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent, colonised parts of Southeast Asia and Hong Kong after the First Opium War, and maintained trading posts and colonies in the Persian Gulf Residencies.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_India_Company

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E98 - Pl. 12. Nouvelle Carte Illustree de l'Asie
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E98 - Pl. 13. Nouvelle Carte Illustree de l'Afrique

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Expeditions exploring Southern Africa were made during the 1830s and 1840s, so that around the midpoint of the 19th century and the beginning of the colonial Scramble for Africa, the unexplored parts were now limited to what would turn out to be the Congo Basin and the African Great Lakes.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_exploration...

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Expeditions exploring Southern Africa were made during the 1830s and 1840s, so that around the midpoint of the 19th century and the beginning of the colonial Scramble for Africa, the unexplored parts were now limited to what would turn out to be the Congo Basin and the African Great Lakes.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_exploration...

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The Gold Coast was a British Crown Colony on the Gulf of Guinea in West Africa from 1821 to its independence as part of the nation of Ghana in 1957.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gold_Coast_(British_colony)

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The Gold Coast was a British Crown Colony on the Gulf of Guinea in West Africa from 1821 to its independence as part of the nation of Ghana in 1957.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gold_Coast_(British_colony)

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Author: Nikola2012
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The Suez Canal ‎ is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez; and dividing Africa and Asia. Constructed by the Suez Canal Company between 1859 and 1869, it officially opened on 17 November 1869.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suez_Canal

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The Suez Canal ‎ is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez; and dividing Africa and Asia. Constructed by the Suez Canal Company between 1859 and 1869, it officially opened on 17 November 1869.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suez_Canal

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E98 - Pl. 13. Nouvelle Carte Illustree de l'Afrique
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E98 - Pl. 14. Nouvelle carte illustree de l'Oceanie

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Bushrangers were originally escaped convicts in the early years of the British settlement of Australia who used the bush as a refuge to hide from the authorities. By the 1820s, the term had evolved to refer to those who took up "robbery under arms" as a way of life, using the bush as their base.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bushranger

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Bushrangers were originally escaped convicts in the early years of the British settlement of Australia who used the bush as a refuge to hide from the authorities. By the 1820s, the term had evolved to refer to those who took up "robbery under arms" as a way of life, using the bush as their base.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bushranger

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Author: Nikola2012
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Bakumatsu refers to the final years of the Edo period when the Tokugawa shogunate ended. Between 1853 and 1867, Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy known as sakoku and changed from a feudal Tokugawa shogunate to the modern empire of the Meiji government. The major ideological-political divide during this period was between the pro-imperial nationalists called ishin shishi and the shogunate forces, which included the elite shinsengumi swordsmen.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bakumatsu

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Bakumatsu refers to the final years of the Edo period when the Tokugawa shogunate ended. Between 1853 and 1867, Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy known as sakoku and changed from a feudal Tokugawa shogunate to the modern empire of the Meiji government. The major ideological-political divide during this period was between the pro-imperial nationalists called ishin shishi and the shogunate forces, which included the elite shinsengumi swordsmen.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bakumatsu

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E98 - Pl. 14. Nouvelle carte illustree de l'Oceanie
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E98 - Title Page: Atlas illustre de geographie commerciale et industrielle
E98 - Title Page: Atlas illustre de geographie commerciale et industrielle
E98 - Pl. 1. Planisphere : Elementaire et Illustre
E98 - Pl. 1. Planisphere : Elementaire et Illustre
E98 - Pl. 15. Nouvelle carte illustree de l'Amerique du Nord
E98 - Pl. 15. Nouvelle carte illustree de l'Amerique du Nord
E98 - Pl. 16. Nouvelle carte illustree de l'Amerique du Sud
E98 - Pl. 16. Nouvelle carte illustree de l'Amerique du Sud
E98 - Text: Introduction
E98 - Text: Introduction
E98 - Text: (Continues) Introduction. Carte composant l'atlas de geographie commercile ...
E98 - Text: (Continues) Introduction. Carte composant l'atlas de geographie commercile ...
E98 - Pl. 2. Nouvelle carte illustree de l'Europe
E98 - Pl. 2. Nouvelle carte illustree de l'Europe
E98 - Pl. 3. Nouvelle carte illustree de la France
E98 - Pl. 3. Nouvelle carte illustree de la France
E98 - Pl. 4. Nouvelle Carte Illustrée des Royaumes de Hollande et the Belgique
E98 - Pl. 4. Nouvelle Carte Illustrée des Royaumes de Hollande et the Belgique
E98 - Pl. 5. Nouvelle Carte Illustree des Isles Britanniques
E98 - Pl. 5. Nouvelle Carte Illustree des Isles Britanniques
E98 - Pl. 6. Nouvelle Carte Illustree des etats de Nord de l'Europe donnant la Russie d'Europe
E98 - Pl. 6. Nouvelle Carte Illustree des etats de Nord de l'Europe donnant la Russie d'Europe
E98 - Pl. 7. Nouvelle Carte Illustree de l'Allemagne
E98 - Pl. 7. Nouvelle Carte Illustree de l'Allemagne
E98 - Pl. 8. Nouvelle Carte Illustree de la Suisse
E98 - Pl. 8. Nouvelle Carte Illustree de la Suisse
E98 - Pl. 9. Nouvelle Carte Illustree de l'Italie
E98 - Pl. 9. Nouvelle Carte Illustree de l'Italie
E98 - Pl. 10. Nouvelle Carte Illustree de L'Espagne et de Portugal
E98 - Pl. 10. Nouvelle Carte Illustree de L'Espagne et de Portugal
E98 - Pl. 11. Nouvelle Carte Illustree de la de la Turquie d'Europe et de la Grece
E98 - Pl. 11. Nouvelle Carte Illustree de la de la Turquie d'Europe et de la Grece
E98 - Pl. 12. Nouvelle Carte Illustree de l'Asie
E98 - Pl. 12. Nouvelle Carte Illustree de l'Asie
E98 - Pl. 13. Nouvelle Carte Illustree de l'Afrique
E98 - Pl. 13. Nouvelle Carte Illustree de l'Afrique
E98 - Pl. 14. Nouvelle carte illustree de l'Oceanie
E98 - Pl. 14. Nouvelle carte illustree de l'Oceanie